[25a - 38 lines; 25b - 42 lines]

1)[line 3] HA'SOCHER AMAS HA'MAYIM- one who stops up a channel of water [such that the end of it is blocked off from the rest]

2)[line 5] CHAYAH SHE'KINENAH B'FARDES- a wild animal that has made a den [and given birth] in an enclosed orchard

3)[line 6]ZIMUN- designation [in order for one to be permitted to slaughter and eat it on Yom Tov]

4)[line 6] NAFAL CHAVRIN B'RAVREVASA- our colleague has fallen into great [arguments with this statement]. Rav Huna, Rav Chisda, and Rav Nachman were all students of Rav.

5)[line 14] SHE'LO TISCHALEF B'IMAH- that it should not be confused with its mother [which is the same size and was not designated to be eaten on Yom Tov]

6)[line 17]SHE'HIZMINAN- [a case] in which one designated [pigeons in a dovecote]

7)[line 24]MENU'ANA'IN- that have been shaken [on Erev Yom Tov as an indication that one intends to slaughter them on Yom Tov]

8a)[line 24]BOROS- round wells

b)[line 24]SHICHIN- elongated ditches

c)[line 25]ME'AROS- caves

9)[line 25]YITLOSH- detach [something growing on the tree]

10)[line 26] B'CHOL MAKOM- [found] anywhere [at any time]

11a)[line 26] HA BAH- the Beraisa [that does not require Zimun] refers to the offspring [of the Chayah, which can not escape the orchard]

b)[line 26] HA B'IMAH- the Beraisa [that does require Zimun] refers to the mother [Chayah, which can escape the orchard]

12)[line 28]B'DIDAH- referring to the offspring

13)[line 28] HA B'GINAH HA'SEMUCHAH L'IR- the Beraisa [that does not require Zimun] refers to [a young Chayah stuck in] a garden close to the city [in which case it may be presumed that the owner of that garden plans on slaughtering it for Yom Tov]

14)[line 29]MESUKENES- in danger [of dying at any moment]

15)[line 29]SHAHUS- time

16a)[line 30]CHAI- raw [meat]

b)[line 30] MI'BEIS TEVICHASAH- from the place where it was slaughtered; i.e., its neck

17a)[line 30]MOT- a pole carried by two people across their shoulders

b)[line 31]MOTEH- a pole carried by two people in the hands (MELECHES SHLOMO)

18)[line 31]HEFSHET- skinning

b)[line 32]NITU'ACH- dismemberment

19)[line 32]OLAH (KORBAN OLAH)

(a)An Olah sacrifice has the status of Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Yoma 36:1), and is required of both the Tzibur (e.g., the Korban Tamid) and an individual under various circumstances. Voluntary Olos (Olos Nedavah) may be offered as well. An Olah must be brought by an individual to atone for the transgression of an Aseh (a positive commandment), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh (see Background to Yoma 36:19), or certain sinful thoughts (see Vayikra Rabah 7:3).

(b)One who offers a Korban Olah first leans on the animal with all his might (Semichah) in the northern area of the Azarah. He then recites Viduy, confessing his sin and asking Hash-m for forgiveness. The animal is then immediately slaughtered. The blood of the Olah is applied to the northeastern and southwestern Keranos (cubic Amah posts on the corners of the Mizbe'ach) only, in such a way that there is Dam on all sides of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). The Korban is then skinned and dismembered. An Olah is unique in that the meat of the animal is burned in its entirety. The skin of the animal, however, is given to the Kohanim. An Olah must be burned on the same day that it is slaughtered. Nesachim (see Background to 31:30) are offered together with a Korban Olah.

20)[line 32]KATZAVIM- butchers

21)[line 37] MAKOM SHE'TOVACHAS ACHILASAH- the place where it chops up its food; i.e., its intestines. According to this understanding of Rebbi Akiva, he is agreeing with Rami bar Aba, since one must dismember an animal in order to get to its intestines.


22)[line 1] ORACH AR'A- proper conduct (this is the Aramaic translation of Derech Eretz) [since the animal may be found non-kosher upon further inspection]

23)[line 1]KED'TANYA- as we learned in a Beraisa [that a Tana taught the proper way in which one should conduct himself, even though it was unrelated to an actual prohibition]

24)[line 2]SHUM- garlic

25a)[line 2]ME'ROSHO- from its end

b)[line 2]ME'ALAV- from its leaves

26a)[line 3]RA'AVTAN- a glutton

b)[line 4]GARGERAN- one who drinks excessively

27)[line 6] GASEI HA'RU'ACH- haughty individuals

28)[line 7]CHATZUVA- a shrub with deep, unvaryingly straight roots, planted in hedges as a boundary marker; prob. Cistus

29)[line 7] MEKATE'A RAGLEIHON D'RESHI'AYA- lit. cuts the legs off the wicked; shames those who take that which does not belong to them (esp. land) on the Day of Judgement

30)[line 7]NETI'AH (ORLAH)

(a)One may not derive any benefit from the fruit produced by a fruit tree in the first three years following its planting. These fruits are termed "Orlah" (Vayikra 19:23). This status applies not only to the fruit but also to the peel of the fruit (Kelipei Orlah).

(b)If one consumes a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkus. According to most Rishonim one who derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah) is punished with Malkus as well (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela). There are those, however, who maintain that for such a transgression one receives only Makas Mardus (Malkus instituted by the Rabanan; RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 - see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8).

31)[line 8]KATZAVAYA- butchers [who are impatient and eat from a slaughtered animal before it is dismembered and checked to see if it kosher]

32)[line 8] BO'ALEI NIDOS (NIDAH)

(a)By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.

(b)One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted many far-ranging additional ways in which one must keep his distance from his wife when she is Teme'ah.

(c)Rami bar Aba declares that one who is too impatient to wait until his wife has become Tehorah will be shamed on the Day of Judgement by the Halachah of Orlah, which requires one to wait for three years until partaking of the fruit of a fruit tree.

33)[line 9]TURMOSA- lupine, a legume in the pea family

34)[line 9] SON'EIHEM SHEL YISRAEL- lit. the enemies of Yisrael. This is a euphemism used for Klal Yisrael when the reference holds a negative connotation.


(a)The Navi informs us that between the reign of the Shofet (Judge) Ya'ir (the second) and that of Yiftach, "And Bnei Yisrael continued to do evil in the eyes of Hash-m, and they worshipped the Be'alim, the Ashtaros, the gods of Syria, the gods of Tzidon, the gods of Mo'av, the gods of Bnei Amon, and the gods of the Pelishtim, and they forsook Hash-m and did not serve Him" (Shoftim 10:5). Typical of the period of the Shoftim, Klal Yisrael turned to idolatrous practices as soon as the Shofet died. Hash-m would then turn a blind eye as they were subjugated by their enemies. This would lead Klal Yisrael to return and cry out to Hash-m, who would respond by appointing a new Shofet to deliver them from their oppressors.

36a)[line 11]BE'ALIM- [various idols accepted as] masters

b)[line 12]ASHTAROS- the Avodah Zarah of Astarte. Then a popular fertility goddess in the Near East, she is identified with Asheirah and Aphrodite.

37a)[line 12]ARAM- Aramaea, a land to the northeast of Eretz Yisrael. The source of the Aramaic language, it spread over the approximate area of modern-day Syria, including the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

b)[line 12]TZIDON- Sidon, a city in the north of Eretz Yisrael on the Mediterranean coast (Bamidbar 34:7).

38)[line 18] SHOLKIN OSO- they cook it [to remove its bitter taste]

39)[line 19] KINU'ACH SE'UDAH- the appetizer of a meal

40)[line 21] SHE'HEN AZIN- they are brazen [and require the Torah to break them of this negative trait]

41)[line 21]"... , ( ) .""... MI'YMINO, ESH DAS LAMO."- "... from His right hand, [He presented] His fiery Torah to them" (Devarim 33:2).

42)[line 22] RE'UYIN HALALU- it is fit for these [people who have a brazen temperament]

43)[line 23] DASEIHEN SHEL ELU ESH- these [people] have a fiery temperament. According to this version, the verse is understood as "... He presented the Torah with his right hand, because they have a fiery temperament."

44)[line 28]EZ- a goat

45)[line 28] BEHEMAH DAKAH- light animals (such as sheep and goats)

46)[line 28]TZELAF- a caper-berry bush [a) that produces three different types of edible fruit daily (TOSFOS DH u'Tzelaf); b) from which a strong wine (Azah) is made (RI cited by TOSFOS DH u'Tzelaf)]

47)[line 29] EIN SUMA YOTZEI B'MAKLO- a blind person may not go out [into a public area] with his staff [that is not absolutely necessary for him to walk, since it appears as if he is going to do business (See Insights)].

48)[line 29]TARMILO- his bag

49)[line 31]GELUDKI- (O.F. faldestol) a folding chair

50)[line 32] ACHI SHAKYA- Achi the butler (alt. water carrier)

51)[line 32]APIKTEI- brought him out [in a chair]

52)[line 33] ME'HINI L'SHILI- from Hini to Shili (two towns in close proximity of each other in the Pumbedisa area of Bavel)

53)[line 34] ME'SHIMSHA L'TULA- from the sun to the shade

54)[line 35] SHELI'ACH TZIYON- lit. the messenger of Zion; who often traveled to Yerushalayim

55)[line 35] AKIF V'ZIL A'SULMA D'TZOR- detour to the Ladder of Tyre (Scala Tyriorum, a promontory south of Tyre on the southern coast of Lebanon)

56)[line 36] ?MAH ATUN BEI?- what do you [rule regarding] it?

57)[line 37] KI SALIK- when he came up [to Eretz Yisrael]

58)[line 39]ALONKI- (O.F. sanbuels) a seat carried across the arms of two people who face each other and place their hands on each other's shoulders

59)[line 40]YELATA- the wife of Rav Nachman, daughter of the Resh Galusa (Exilarch)

60)[line 40]BE'ISA- she is fearful [of falling]

61)[line 41] SHABTA D'RAGLA- Shabbos of Chol ha'Mo'ed

62)[line 41] DUCHKA D'TZIBURA- [so as not to] inconvenience those who have congregated [to see them and stand in their honor for any longer than necessary]

63)[last line]BECHOR

(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for he who owns the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos 7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, it may be eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.

(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum (blemish), it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.

(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. One may not, however, buy it in order to sell it at a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

64)[last line]MUMCHEH- an expert [on judging whether a Mum (blemish) is temporary or permanent]