BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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[a - 32 lines; b - 48 lines]
1) [line 1] ZELIFASAN - their emission
2) [line 8] NOSEN TA'AM LI'FEGAM - an Isur that spoils the taste of the food into which it falls
(a) An Isur (prohibited food item) that is Nosen Ta'am li'Fegam, i.e. it does not forbid the food into which it falls (Avodah Zarah 67b). The Rishonim explain that the Halachah of Ta'am k'Ikar (see above, entry #1) does not apply to Isur that spoils the taste of a mixture since one who eats the mixture does not benefit in any way from the Isur that is mixed into it (RASHBA and RAN ibid.). An Isur that stands by itself remains prohibited even if its taste spoils, as long as it is still fit to be eaten by animals.
(b) Nosen Ta'am li'Fegam permits a mixture even if the Isur itself has a pleasant taste, but when mixed into another food, it spoils the taste of the mixture. It permits a mixture even if the Isur spoils the taste of the mixture only because of an external factor (e.g. not enough salt) (Avodah Zarah 65b, 67a, SHULCHAN ARUCH YD 103:1-4).
(c) Because an Isur that is Nosen Ta'am li'Fegam does not prohibit the food into which it is mixed, Rebbi Chiya (Avodah Zarah 75b) states that the Torah forbids cooking in a utensil that was used to cook non-Kosher food only if the utensil is Ben Yomo (i.e. it was used to cook non-Kosher food that same day). Otherwise, non-Kosher Ta'am the utensil absorbed spoils, and it detracts from, rather than enhances, the taste of the food that is subsequently cooked in the utensil. RASHI and TOSFOS write that a utensil is not Ben Yomo if it was left overnight. The RASHBAM and the SHULCHAN ARUCH (YD ibid. 103:5-7) rule that the utensil is not Ben Yomo only if it was left unused for twenty-four hours after cooking the non-Kosher food.
3) [line 14] ICHSIF - he was embarrassed
4) [line 16] "VAYASEM DANIEL AL-LIBO ASHER LO YISGA'AL BE'FAS-BAG HA'MELECH U'VE'YEIN MISHTAV [VAYEVAKESH MI'SAR HA'SARISIM ASHER LO YISGA'EL]" - "And Daniel resolved that he would not defile himself with the king's food and with the wine that he drank, [and so he requested of the chief valet that he not be defiled]."
(a) An earlier verse relates that Nevuchadnetzar hand-picked Daniel, Chananyah, Mishael, and Azaryah from the exiles of Yehudah, and changed their names to Belshatzar, Shadrach, Meishach, and Avad N'go, respectively. The verse describes their duties and the instructions they received about how to stand before the king. He also ordered Ashpenaz, his chief valet, to serve them each day from the king's food and wine.
(b) Daniel submitted a request that they be supplied with an alternative diet.
(c) The verse continues and relates that Daniel found favor in the eyes of Ashpenaz, who was initially reluctant to comply with his request out of fear for what Nevuchadnetzar would do to him when he discovered that he contravened his instructions. The king eventually would discover that they were not eating his food when he would see their poor, undernourished appearance. Only when Daniel suggested a ten-day trial period, during which he would feed himself and his friends legumes and water only, did Ashpenaz consent. After ten days, they looked stronger and healthier than all of the other courtiers, and thus he continued to feed them legumes and water during the entire duration of their service in the palace.
5) [line 20] MI'SHEMONAH ASAR DAVAR - [these are all] from the 18 enactments instituted by the disciples of Shamai and Hillel (see Shabbos 13b)
6) [line 22] ASAHADUSEI - his testimony
7) [line 1] "B'ME'ERAH ATEM NE'ARIM V'OSI ATEM KOV'IM, HA'GOI KULO" - "You are cursed with a curse; yet you still rob from Me, this whole nation." (Malachi 3:9)
8) [line 6] NIDOS ME'ARISOSAN - [they decreed on the daughters of idolaters] the status of Tum'as Nidah from their cradles (infancy)
9) [line 10] MAI ULMEI D'SHEMEN MI PAS? - what is the stringency of oil over bread?
10) [line 12] V'AL DAVAR ACHER MISHUM DAVAR ACHER - they also made a decree on something else on account of something else. The Gemara will explain this shortly.
11) [line 14] SHEVA UMOS - according to Torah law, it is only forbidden to marry daughters of the original seven Canaanite nations
12) [line 19] ISHUS DERECH CHASNUS - according to Torah law, relations with an idolatress is forbidden only in the manner of marriage
13) [line 27] HA'BOEL ARAMIS KANA'IN POG'IN BO - if a Jew has relations with a Nochri, zealots are allowed to kill him
14) [line 28] B'FARHESYA - in public
15) [line 28] UCH'MA'ASEH SHE'HAYAH - and like the incident that occurred, i.e., the incident of Pinchas and Zimri
16) [line 32] NaSHG"A - this acronym stands for Nidah, Shifchah, Goiyah, Ishus. It refers to the four prohibitions enacted by the Rabanan, according to Rav Dimi, that one transgresses when he has relations with a Nochris.
17) [line 33] NaSHGa"Z - this acronym stands for Nidah, Shifchah, Goiyah, Zonah. It refers to the four prohibitions enacted by the Rabanan, according to Ravin, that one transgresses when he has relations with a Nochris.
18) [line 40] A'YICHUD D'PENUYA - [David ha'Melech's court decreed] on seclusion with a single woman.
19) [line 43] B'ZIVAH
(a) A Zav, whether he sees Zov two or three times, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. He can cause objects that are under him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether he touches them or not. These objects are then called Mishkav and Moshav, or the Tachton, of a Zav. Any object (besides earthenware utensils and foods) may become a Mishkav or Moshav if it was made for lying or sitting upon. A person who is touching or carrying a Mishkav or Moshav is Metamei the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he may be touching. These items get the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(b) Utensils or clothes which lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.
(c) The Chachamim decreed that non-Jewish boys have the status of a Zav even if they never had a discharge of Zov. The decree was instituted so that Jewish boys should stay away from them and not learn their non-Jewish ways.
20) [line 43] B'MISHKAV ZACHOR - with male homosexuality
Index to Background for Maseches Avodah Zarah