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Zevachim Chart #9
"Kosher" = l'Chatchilah
"Hurtzah" = Kosher b'Di'eved
"Pasul" = Mechalel Avodah
TUM'AS MES (ON DAYS 1-6)(1)
& TUM'AS MES ON DAY SEVEN(2)
|TUM'AH OF TZIBUR|
(when bringing a Korban Pesach)(6)
|TUM'AH OF INDIVIDUAL|
|2)||TUM'AS HA'KOHEN|| Ziknei Darom:
Rami b. Chama:
(when bringing a Korban Pesach)(12)
| Ziknei Darom:
Rami b. Chama:
|4)|| TUM'AS HA'BA'ALIM
(when bringing other Korbanos)(15)
(1) A Tamei Mes, on days one to six, does not become Tahor at nightfall.
(2) A Tamei Mes, on his seventh day, becomes Tahor at nightfall (and can eat the Korban Pesach in its proper time).
(3) For example, all of the knives became Tamei, and it is not possible to slaughter the Korban in a state of Taharah. (See Tosfos 22b, DH Iy Hachi.)
(4) In such a case, it is permitted to bring the Korban in a state of Tum'ah, because of the rule that "Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur."
(5) The Gemara (22b) says that the Ziknei Darom maintain that the "Mechaprim" are like the "Miskaprim," which means that just as we do not say that "Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur" when most of the nation is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz (since they are able to offer their Korbanos in a state of *Taharah*; see footnote #7), so, too, we do not say that "Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur" when the Kohanim (or the knives) are Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz. (However, according to Tosfos on 22b, DH Iy Hachi, in the name of Rabeinu Tam, "Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur" applies in these cases as well.)
(6) For all other Korbanos the principle of "Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur" does not apply. (In addition, there is no practical difference to Tum'as ha'Ba'alim for other Korbanos; see below, footnote #12).
(7) This is because of the rule that "Shochtin v'Zorkin Al Tamei Sheretz" -- we may do Shechitah and Zerikah of a Korban on behalf of a person who is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz. Because of this, the Tum'as Sheretz of the owner does not invalidate the Korban at all, since he does not touch it while he is Tamei, and in the evening he becomes Tahor and is able to eat it. (Since it is possible for him to bring the Korban without making it Tamei, we do not say "Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur" with regard to Tum'as Sheretz, and thus it is prohibited for one who is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz to enter the Azarah at the time that his Korban is being offered, as Rashi says (22b, DH Ela Savrei).) According to Rashi (23b, DH Ileima), it appears that this, too, requires Ritzuy of the Tzitz to make it a valid Korban. See Tosfos there (DH Iy Neima) who argues with Rashi.
(8) This is the primary application of Ritzuy ha'Tzitz, which is Mechaper for the Tum'ah of Korbanos, even if they are Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz (even though the Tzitz is not Meratzeh for the Tum'as Sheretz of the Kohen, according to the Ziknei Darom) as the Gemara concludes (23b).
(9) This is the Chidush of the Ziknei Darom (22b) in their explanation of the Mishnah (15b); since Tum'as ha'Kohen is Meratzeh b'Tzibur l'Chatchilah, it is Meratzeh for a Yachid b'Di'eved.
(10) According to Rami bar Chama (23a, and Reish Lakish on 22b), we cannot validate a Korban of a Yachid brought with Tum'as ha'Kohen, as the Ziknei Darom permit, because if we do, then we will also have to validate a Korban brought with Tum'as Sheretz, based on a Kal v'Chomer -- since Tum'as Sheretz is more lenient than Tum'as Mes. We know that Tum'as Sheretz is more lenient than Tum'as Mes, according to Rami bar Chama, because we do *not* bring a Korban Pesach on behalf of a person who is Tamei with Tum'as Mes, even though we *do* bring a Korban Pesach on behalf of one who is Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz (see below, footnote #14).
(All of this is according to the view of Rashi. Tosfos (22b, DH Iy Hachi; 23b, DH Iy Neima), however, maintains that Rami bar Chama indeed derives from the Kal v'Chomer that the Korban is Hurtzah b'Di'eved for both Tum'as Mes and Tum'as Sheretz of a Yachid. When our Mishnah says that a Tamei is Me chalel the Avodah, it is referring to a Tum'ah that comes from his body, such as the Tum'ah of a Zav and a Metzora. According to Tosfos, Rami bar Chama interprets the Beraisa which validates the Avodah when done with Tum'as ha'Guf as referring to the two cases 2:A and 2:B.)
(11) This is the intention of the Mishnah when it says that a Kohen who is Tamei is Mechalel the Avodah. (This is according to Rashi. Tosfos (ibid.), however, holds that this, too, is Hurtzah b'Di'eved, as mentioned above in footnote #10.)
(12) With regard to all other Korbanos (except for the Korbanos of a Nazir), there is no practical difference if the owner of the Korban is Tamei (Tum'as ha'Ba'alim). The practical difference is only when the Kohen who offers the Korban is Tamei (Tum'as ha'Kohen), as Rashi (23a, DH Mipnei she'Amru) writes.
(13) The Ziknei Darom maintain that b'Di'eved, "Shochtin v'Zorkin Al Tamei Mes" as well as Tamei Sheretz (and only l'Chatchilah is the person's Korban pushed off until Pesach Sheni).
(14) Rami bar Chama maintains (as does Reish Lakish on 22b) that "*Ein* Shochtin v'Zorkin Al Tamei Mes" for the Korban Pesach (when the Tzibur is not Tamei), even b'Di'eved.
(15) This applies to all Korbanos except for the Korban Pesach (as recorded in the preceding row) and the Korban of a Nazir, which everyone agrees is Pasul when the owner is Tamei (23b).
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