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Pesachim Chart #2
LEVELS OF TUM'AH
WHAT ITEMS HAVE THIS TUM'AH?
IF ANY OF THE ITEMS IN COLUMN A TOUCHES ONE OF THESE...
THEN IT BECOMES:
|1)|| AVI AVOS
| 1.a human corpse
that touch it
| a man.................
earthenware or food...
|2)||AV HA'TUM'AH||1.man who touches
touch that man
| man, earthenware, or food..................
Rishon (or Av)(12)
|3)||RISHON|| 1.an object or food
that touches an Av
2.liquids that touch
Sheni and up(2)
Sheni *if* they
|4)||SHENI|| 1.Tevul Yom
2.food that touched
| Terumah food..........
touched a Sheni
2.According to Rebbi Akiva, even Chulin that touched a Sheni
|6)||REVI'I|| 1.Kodshim that
touched a Shelishi
(1) See Insights to 14b with regard to whether this applies only to metal utensils or to all utensils. This chart was prepared according to the opinion that it applies to *all* utensils except for Klei Cheres, unlike Rashi and Tosfos, for the sake of simplicity.
(2) This is a rabbinical enactment, that "anything which causes Terumah to become Pasul will be Metamei liquids to become a Rishon" (Pesachim 13b).
(3) Earthenware utensils cannot become Tamei with Av ha'Tum'ah, as the Gemara says at the end of Eruvin.
(4) A utensil cannot become Tamei from a Rishon, because a utensil can only become an Av ha'Tum'ah or a Rishon, and it cannot become a Sheni. However, if the utensil touched liquid that was Tamei, the Rabanan decreed that the utensil can make Terumah Pasul, i.e. it is a Sheni (Shabbos 14b). According to Rebbi Yehudah prior to his retraction, in the Beraisa in Pesachim 16a, a utensil can become Tamei as a Sheni even *mid'Oraisa*, if it touches liquid is a Rishon mid'Oraisa (for example, liquid that touched a Sheretz).
(5) If the item conveying Tum'ah is a food or liquid, one opinion holds that it cannot make a "like" item Tamei. That is, a food cannot be Metamei another food, but only a liquid, and a liquid cannot be Metamei another liquid, but only a food.
(6) Tosfos (14b, DH v'Ilu) writes that Terumah also becomes a Shelishi and can make Kodshim Pasul. The Gemara said that Terumah becomes only "Pasul" when it touches a Sheni (and does not become a Shelishi) only with regard to Terumah that touched a *Tevul Yom*.
(7) There are actually many other objects that are considered Avos ha'Tum'ah, which are listed in the Mishnah at the beginning of Kelim. (One of these which is mentioned in our Sugya is Mei Chatas, water sprinkled with the ashes of the Parah Adumah.)
(8) This also applies to wood and incense of Kodshim, although they are neither edible nor utensils, and should not be Mekabel Tum'ah, because "Chibas Kodshim" enables them to be Mekabel Tum'ah (Rashi 19a, DH Alma).
(9) The Kodshim become Pasul mid'Oraisa (18b). According to Rashi (19a, DH Ela), the opinion which holds that liquids cannot be Metamei foods mid'Oraisa holds that the status of Revi'i by Kodesh is only mid'Rabanan and not mid'Oraisa.
(10) There is one case in which even a Revi'i is able to be something Pasul. If a Revi'i touched *Mei Chatas*, then the Mei Chatas becomes Pasul. This is one of the enactments that the Rabanan made for Mei Chatas.
(11) This applies only if they touched the dead body itself, and not utensils that touched it.
(12) Utensils that touch an Av ha'Tum'ah become an Av ha'Tum'ah *only* if they touched the first category of Av in column A; that is, they touched a man who touched an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah (or in the specific case where they touched utensils that touched other utensils that, in turn, touched a Mes). However, if utensils touch a Sheretz or Neveilah or another Av ha'Tum'ah, they only become a Rishon.
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