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1. Aba Shaul defines the Mishnah's term, "a fetus of tissue," the birth of which is cause for concern that one gave birth to a boy or girl.
2. Rebbi Chiya further explains Aba Shaul's definition.
3. Shmuel was able to determine the age of a miscarried fetus.
4. There is a dispute about the definition of the Mishnah's term, "Sandal," which is cause for concern that one gave birth to a boy or girl.
5. Rebbi Yanai understood that some of these definitions were based on a minority opinion.


1. His description includes the details that it has two eyes the size of the eyes of a fly, two nostrils the size of the eyes of a fly, and its mouth is a small crack the size of a hair. Its body is the size of a lentil, and it has no hands and feet.
2. He explains that the eyes must already be at a distance from each other and the nostrils must be close together to be considered "a fetus of tissue."
3. Shmuel was able to determine that a fetus that had been brought to him was 41 days old, even though the husband was prohibited to his wife (she was a Nidah) 41 days earlier. When presented with Shmuel's statement, the husband confessed that they had transgressed the prohibition of Nidah.
4. The Tana Kama says that a "Sandal" is a fetus that grew like an ordinary fetus but then was crushed, causing it to look like a fish known as a "Sandal." Some say that it must have a face that looks like a human face, while others say that it is enough if the back of its head looks like a human head.
5. When a Sandal that did not look like it had a human head was going to be declared not to be a Sandal, Rebbi Yanai remarked, "You have made births pure!" Rav Bibi bar Abaye explained that this was because the source for the position that requires the face (or back of it) to look human was a minority opinion that we do not follow.

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