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1. If a bird was bitten on the head by a weasel and the membrane of the brain was punctured, the bird is a Tereifah.
2. According to Ula, a bird that was bitten by a weasel can be inspected by hand to see whether the membrane of the brain was punctured, but it should not be inspected with a nail. According to Rebbi Yochanan, it may be inspected with a nail.
3. If the skull of a water bird, such as a duck or goose, is fractured, the bird is a Tereifah.
4. If a bird fell into a fire and its gizzard, heart, or liver turned green even in one small area, the bird is a Tereifah.
5. If a bird fell into a fire and its intestines turned red even in one small area, the bird is a Tereifah.
6. A bird fell into a fire and its gizzard, heart, or liver turned green. If they revert to their original red color after being cooked, the bird is Kosher, because their return to their original color indicates that they turned green only from the smoke.
7. If a bird fell into a fire and the gizzard, heart, and liver did not turn green, but they turn red after being cooked, the bird is a Tereifah, because the change of color indicates that it was scorched from the fire.
8. If a bird was stepped on, knocked against a wall, or crushed by an animal, and it survives for 24 hours, it is Kosher. However, it must be inspected to ensure that it suffered no mortal injuries, such as the severance of the spinal cord.
9. If the crop of a bird is punctured, the bird is Kosher, according to the Tana Kama. Rebbi maintains that it is Kosher even if the crop is removed.
10. If the intestines of a bird came out of its body, the bird is Kosher.
A BIT MORE
1. There is a disagreement about whether the bird is a Tereifah when the outer membrane was punctured while the inner membrane remained intact, or whether it is a Tereifah only when the inner membrane was also punctured.
2. According to Ula, it must be inspected by pushing with one's hand on the palate; if the brain matter is squeezed out, this indicates that the membrane of the brain was punctured. It should not be inspected by rubbing the edge of a nail over the membrane to see if it snags, because the nail itself may puncture the membrane. Rebbi Yochanan is not concerned that the nail will cause a puncture.
3. The brain of a water bird has a very thin membrane, and if the skull is fractured, a puncture eventually will form in the membrane of the brain.
4. If the area of the liver adjacent to the intestines turned green, the bird is a Tereifah because it indicates that the intestines were scorched.
5. The intestines are normally green. If they turned red, this indicates that they were scorched by the fire.
6. It is apparent that the organs were not scorched from the fire, but rather they absorbed smoke which caused the green discoloration, and therefore the bird is not a Tereifah.
7. However, if the bird fell into fire and the gizzard, heart, and liver did not turn green, it is not necessary to cook them to ascertain that they will not turn green even after being cooked.
8. However, if it did not survive for 24 hours, it is a Tereifah. Inspection does not help because there is a concern that limbs were crushed that are not apparent from inspection.
9. However, if the esophagus of a bird is punctured, it is a Tereifah, and if the roof of the crop is punctured where it starts tapering toward the esophagus, it is a Tereifah.
10. However, if the intestines are inverted when they are placed back into the body of the bird, or the coils are returned out of place, the bird is a Tereifah.
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