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1. A mortal king sits inside and his servants guard him from the outside. Hashem's servants sit on the inside and Hashem guards them from the outside.
2. Hashem's words to Rivkah, "There are two nations in your womb," referred to Rebbi, who descended from Yakov Avinu, and to Antoninus, who descended from Esav.
3. According to Rebbi Meir, the birthday and the day of death of the Roman king was regarded as a religious holiday. It was forbidden to engage in commerce with them for three days prior to it.
4. It is permitted to incinerate the utensils of a Jewish king. It is not regarded as Darchei ha'Emori.
5. It is permitted to cripple the animals which were used by a Jewish king. It is not regarded as Darchei ha'Emori.
6. The day that the king shaved his beard, or cut or designed his Beloris, was a religious holiday. It was forbidden to engage in commerce with them for that day alone.
7. Once every seventy years, the Romans brought out a healthy person wearing the clothing of Adam ha'Rishon and the mask of Rebbi Yishmael the Kohen Gadol, and they had him ride on a crippled person.
8. Shmuel maintains that in Galus it is forbidden to engage in commerce with the Nochrim only on the religious holiday itself.
9. If a particular city has a religious holiday, it is permitted to engage in commerce with the people who live outside the city.


1. When a person places a Mezuzah on his doorpost, his house is guarded.
2. The verse should not be read "Shnei Goyim" but rather "Shnei Ge'im" (two important people). This is a reference to Antoninus the Roman king, and to Rebbi, the Nasi of Yisrael.
3. The Rabanan maintain that the day of death is a religious holiday only if the beds and utensils of the king were incinerated.
4. It is also permitted to incinerate the utensil of a Nasi.
5. It is permitted to cripple the horse on which the king rode, and the calf which pulled his wagon. However, it is forbidden to make the animal into a Tereifah.
6. The day on which the Beloris was designed and the day on which it was cut off are religious holidays for the Romans.
7. The healthy person symbolized Esav. The cripple symbolized Yakov. They announced in front of them, "The brother of our master is a fraud," meaning that Yakov defrauded Esav when he took the blessing, "And you shall be a master to your brother."
8. During the three days prior to the holiday, it is permitted, because it is impossible for the Jews who live among the Nochrim to refrain from engaging in commerce with them for four straight days.
9. Each vicinity had its own holidays. Therefore, even though the residents of the city observed a religious holiday, the people who lived outside the city observed a different religious holiday.

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