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SANHEDRIN 87
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SANHEDRIN 87 (Hoshana Raba) - Dedicated by Gedalliah Jawitz in honor of the Yahrzeit of Yehuda ben Simcha Volf Jawitz.

SUMMARY

1. A Zaken Mamrei is only Chayav if he is an expert judge.
 
2. The Beis ha'Mikdash is the highest place in Eretz Yisrael.
 
3. A Zaken Mamrei is only Chayav if the Beis Din ha'Gadol is in the Lishkas ha'Gazis.
 
4. Rebbi Meir maintains that a Zaken Mamrei is only Chayav if he ruled on an Aveirah which is punished with Kares (if it is done b'Mezid) and with a Korban Chatas (if it is done b'Shogeg).
 
5. Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayus testified that Beis Din may establish a leap year throughout the entire month of Adar.
 
6. If a woman sees blood on the tenth day of her eleven days of Zivah, Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue whether she must observe a clean day on the eleventh day.
 
7. If a Yoledes sees blood non-stop, from her days of Tum'ah until her days of Taharah, Rav and Levi argue whether the blood is Tahor or Tamei.
 
8. A Yoledes sees blood for three days straight while she is in labor. Afterwards, her labor pains cease for a 24 hour period before giving birth. There is a disagreement between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua whether or not she is a Zavah.

A BIT MORE

1. If a student defies the decision of the Beis Din ha'Gadol he is Patur.
 
2. Eretz Yisrael is the highest place in the world.
 
3. If the Sanhedrin is outside the Lishkas ha'Gazis at the time of their ruling, even if they were in Yerushalayim, the Din of a Zaken Mamrei doesn't apply.
 
4. Rebbi Yehudah says a Zaken Mamrei is only Chayav if he rules on something which is from the Torah but is explained by the Chachamim. Rebbi Shimon says a Zaken Mamrei is Chayav even on something that is completely midd'Rabanan.
 
5. Their testimony was necessary because the Chachamim maintained that a leap year may only be established until Purim. The reasoning of the Chachamim was that people would start learning Hilchos Pesach thirty day before Pesach. If a leap year is instituted after that point, it may not be adhered to and the people may eat Chametz on Pesach.
 
6. A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches the following. After the seven days of Nidah are completed, a woman observes 11 days of "Zivah." If she sees blood during the next eleven days, she must observe a clean day on the following day. She as known as a "Zavah Ketanah," or "Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom." If she sees blood three consecutive days, she is a Zavah Gedolah. If she sees blood on the tenth day of her 11 days of Zivah, she cannot become a Zavah Gedolah (since there is only one day remaining of the eleven days). Rebbi Yochanan therefore maintains that she need not observe a clean day on the following day. Reish Lakish disagrees.
 
7. Rav maintains that even though the Yoledes saw a non-stop flow of blood from her days of Tum'ah through the start of her 66 days of Taharah, the blood that she sees within her days of Taharah is Tahor. Levi says that unless the blood flow stopped and restarted, the blood is Tamei even during her days of Taharah.
 
8. Rebbi Eliezer maintains that she is regarded as a Zavah and must count seven clean days before she is Tahor. Rebbi Yehoshua learns that unless she is free of labor pains for an entire night and day, she is not regarded as a Zavah.

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