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1. When the Tekufas Tishrei is going to begin very late in the month of Tishrei, the Chachamim proclaim a leap year so that it will arrive earlier. The Tanaim differ with regard to the exact situation that warrants the proclamation of a leap year.
2. There is a Machlokes regarding whether the day of the Tekufah itself is the beginning of the new Tekufah or the end of the previous Tekufah.
3. The Acherim state that if fourteen days in the month will elapse before the arrival of the Tekufah, a leap year must be proclaimed. There is a Machlokes between the Amoraim regarding the meaning of this statement.
4. There is a Machlokes as to whether Semichah on a Par He'elem Davar requires five judges or three.
5. When a student receives Semichah in order to be ordained as a Rav, the Semichah must be performed by three Chachamim.


1. The Tana Kama and Rebbi Shimon maintain that if the Tekufas Tishrei is scheduled to begin on the seventeenth day of Tishrei, the Rabanan should proclaim a leap year because the entire Chol ha'Mo'ed of Sukos, which begins on the sixteenth of Tishrei, must be in the Tekufah of Tishrei. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi maintain that only part of the Chol ha'Mo'ed of Sukos needs to be in Tekufas Tishrei. Accordingly, the Rabanan establish a leap year only if the Tekufas Tishrei is going to begin on the twenty-second day of Tishrei, after the Chol ha'Mo'ed of Sukos has already concluded.
2. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that the day when the Tekufah falls out is considered the last day of the previous Tekufah. Rebbi Yosi maintains that it is considered the first day of the new Tekufah.
3. Rebbi Shmuel Bar Yitzchak explains that the Acherim are referring to the Tekufas Aviv, and they maintain that it must begin no later than the fourteenth day of Nisan. Ravina understands that the Acherim are referring to the Tekufas Tishrei, and they maintain that the entire Chag of Sukos, including the first day, must be in the Tekufas Tishrei.
4. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that Semichah on the Par He'elem Davar must be done by five judges from the Sanhedri Gedolah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees and maintains that only three judges are required.
5. When a student is given Semichah, it is not necessary for the Chachamim to actually place their hands upon his head. The procedure of Semichah calls for the student simply to be called Rebbi. Once a student has received Semichah, he is authorized to judge Dinei Kenasos (which may be adjudicated only by Mumchim).

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