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1. Moshe proved to the angels that mankind should be given the Torah and it should not stay with the angels.
2. The Satan tricked Bnei Yisrael into thinking that Moshe had died.
3. The Gemara mentions that Har Sinai has many names.
4. Rava: In the future, Hashem will tell Bnei Yisrael to ask their forefathers to intercede on their behalf.
5. Rebbi Yonasan: Yitzchak Avinu will intercede on behalf of Bnei Yisrael.
A BIT MORE
1. Moshe explained that since the Torah states, "Do not kill" and "Do not kidnap," it is clear that it is meant for people who have an evil inclination to do these things, and not for angels who have no evil inclination.
2. He showed them an image of Moshe's coffin floating in the heavens. They had understood that Moshe would arrive at a certain time and that time had already passed. Upon seeing his coffin they were led to believe that he had died, leading them to commit the sin of the Golden Calf.
3. They are: Midbar Tzin, Midbar Kadesh, Midbar Kedeimos, Midbar Paran, and Midbar Sinai. There is a dispute about whether its proper name is Sinai or Chorev.
4. However, Bnei Yisrael will say that they want to turn directly towards Hashem, and Hashem will then forgive their sins in the merit of the fact that they turned towards Him.
5. After Yitzchak Avinu said to Hashem that these are not only my children but also Your children, as the verse states, "My son, My firstborn, Yisrael," Yitzchak reasoned that Bnei Yisrael could not have done many sins. After all, out of the average lifespan of 70 years, they are only liable for their sins b'Yedei Shamayim from the age of 20, half of their life is spent in sleep, and half of the remaining time (12 and 1/2 years) are spent in prayer, eating, and in the bathroom, leaving a mere 12 and 1/2 years sin.
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