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1. There are four domains in the laws of Shabbos.
2. The Gemara defines "Reshus ha'Yachid," or a private domain.
3. The Gemara defines "Reshus ha'Rabim," or a public domain.
4. According to Torah law, one is liable only if he carries from a private domain to a public domain or vice versa, or if he carries four Amos in the public domain.
5. The Gemara gives examples of a Karmelis.


1. They are: Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), Karmelis, and Makom Petur.
2. The basic definition is that it is an independent area of an area of four by four Tefachim and a height of ten Tefachim, such as a pit that is ten Tefachim deep and four Tefachim wide, or a fenced-in area that is ten Tefachim tall and four Tefachim wide.
3. The basic examples are an intercity road, a marketplace, or main streets in the town that are open on both sides and sixteen Amos wide.
4. If one does so on purpose he is liable for Sekilah or Kares. If he does so accidentally he is obligated to bring a Korban Chatas.
5. An ocean, a valley, and public streets that do not meet the Torah's requirements of a public domain are [likely to be] a Karmelis.

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