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1. One who fashions a small vessel out of a mass of clay even though he could have fashioned a large vessel is still liable.
2. One is liable for doing even a small amount of plowing or pruning.
3. A person who plucks weeds or grass from the ground and thereby improves the area may be liable.
4. One who writes two letters on Shabbos is liable.
5. Rav Chisda explains what Rebbi Yehudah means when he says that one is liable for writing the two letters "Shin" and "Mem" from "Shimon."


1. Since there are people who only fashion small vessels out of such a mass, he is liable even if he eventually will change the vessel into a large one. This is because, to those who make small vessels, this vessel is considered finished.
2. If he gathers wood in order to use it as fuel for cooking, he is liable only if it is enough to cook the egg of a chicken.
3. If he does this to his garden, he is clearly liable. If he does this in an ugly area or in his friend's garden, and he does not care about the attractiveness of his friend's garden, he is not liable.
4. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that one must write two letters that are a word by themselves, or part of a larger word, in order to be liable. One is not liable for writing any two random letters. Rebbi Yosi argues one is liable even for making two marks (such as scratches on a board, since that was done to the beams in the Mishkan to indicate where they should be placed).
5. Although the Mem written at the end of a word is not the same as the Mem written at the beginning of a word, it is still valid b'Di'eved when written in a Sefer Torah.

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