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Rav: After three months, an infant recognizes his mother and refuses to nurse from anyone else. (1)
Shmuel: There is no set time for how long it takes an infant to recognize his mother. (2)
A blind infant recognizes his mother by means of smell and taste.
Rebbi Eliezer: A child may nurse only until 24 months. Rebbi Yehoshua: He may nurse until he is 4 or 5 years old.
Rebbi Yehoshua agrees that if the child stopped nursing after 24 months, he may not go back to nursing.
The milk of a non-Kosher animal is not Kosher.
A person may drink human mother's milk from a utensil, but it is forbidden to drink directly from the woman's body. (3)
Human blood is forbidden mid'Rabanan if it has separated from the body.
A person who has a weak heart may drink milk directly from an animal on Shabbos. (4)
If a drain pipe is clogged, one may clear it out with his foot in private on Shabbos. (5)
Rebbi Meir: A widow who is nursing may not remarry until the child is 24 months old. Rebbi Yehudah: She may remarry after 18 months. (6)
Raban Shimon ben Gamliel: She may remarry after 21 months according to Rebbi Meir, and 15 months according to Rebbi Yehudah. (7)
Rav and Shmuel both say that a widowed nursing mother must wait 24 months to get remarried, not including the day of birth or the day of the Kidushin.
A person may not decide a Halachah in the same location as his Rebbi because he will not merit Heavenly assistance.
Rebbi Meir: Even a widow who is definitely not pregnant must wait three months to remarry. Rebbi Yosi: She may remarry immediately.
A widowed nursing mother may remarry if her child dies, but not if she weans him. Mar bar Rav Ashi rules that even if he dies she may not remarry. (8)
If a woman is given a child to nurse, she may not nurse her child or any other child along with him, and she may not eat food that is bad for her milk.


1. Rebbi Yitzchak: Some infants develop faster and recognize their mother after 50 days.
2. Therefore, Beis Din must check to see if the infant recognizes his mother. If Beis Din finds that he does recognize his mother, Beis Din will force a divorced woman to nurse her child.
3. A child may nurse directly from the mother but only until to the age of 4 or 5, according to Rebbi Yehoshua.
4. The prohibition to nurse directly from an animal on Shabbos is only mid'Rabanan, since it is being done in an unusual way. Therefore, it is permitted when a person is in pain.
5. The prohibition to clear it out with a foot on Shabbos is only mid'Rabanan, since it is being done in an unusual way. Therefore, it is permitted to do it in private if there is a risk of monetary loss.
6. She may not remarry immediately because of the concern that she will become pregnant and her pregnancy will cause her milk to sour, and her new husband will not buy milk and eggs as a replacement for the mother's milk because it is not his child.
7. Even if she becomes pregnant right away, it takes three months for the milk to sour.
8. Mar bar Rav Ashi is concerned for the possibility that she will kill the child in order to get remarried.


If a drain pipe is clogged, a person may clear it out with his foot in private on Shabbos. Tosfos asks that since it is permitted only in private, it should be completely prohibited because of the rule that everything the Chachamim prohibited because of the concern of Mar'is ha'Ayin is prohibited everywhere, even in private. Tosfos answers that Mar'is ha'Ayin applies only where the concern is that someone who witnesses the act will think that the person is transgressing an Isur mid'Oraisa. In this case, even if he is seen clearing out the pipe with his foot, the observer will think that he is transgressing only an Isur mid'Rabanan.


If a woman is divorced, Beis Din does not force her to nurse her son, but if she is willing to do so, she is given wages in return for nursing her child. If she declines to nurse the child, we give the child to the father and he takes care of him. However, this applies only if the mother has not yet nursed the child to the point that he recognizes her. If the child recognizes his mother, she must nurse him until the age of 24 months, because otherwise it is dangerous for the child. (Shulchan Aruch EH 82:5)

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