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Moshe Rabeinu did three things on his own, and Hashem agreed with him.
Moshe Rabeinu separated from his wife, broke the Luchos, and added a day prior to Matan Torah. (1)
Rebbi Nasan says that in the first Beraisa, Beis Shamai maintains that a man must have two boys and two girls, and Beis Hillel maintains that one must have one boy and one girl. (2)
Rebbi Nasan says that in the second Beraisa, Beis Shamai maintains that a man must have one boy and one girl. Beis Hillel maintains that one must have one boy or one girl. (3)
Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree about whether a convert who had children prior to his conversion has fulfilled the Mitzvah of Peru u'Revu.
Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish disagree about whether the firstborn son of a convert is considered a Bechor if he had a child prior to his conversion.
Rav says that everyone agrees that the child of a servant has no lineage. (4)
Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Huna disagree about whether the Mitzvah of Peru u'Revu is fulfilled even if the children died. (5)
If one's children died but they left him grandchildren, he has fulfilled the Mitzvah of Peru u'Revu.
If one had two children, and one child died and did not leave him grandchildren, even if the surviving child has two children, it is not a fulfillment of Peru u'Revu.
Rebbi Yehoshua: Even if a man had a wife and children in his youth, he should remarry and have more children in his later years.
Rebbi Akiva: Even if one learned Torah and had students in his youth, he should learn more Torah and have more students in his later years.
The 12,000 pairs of students of Rebbi Akiva all died in the same period because they did not treat each other with the proper degree of respect. (6)
A man without a wife lives without happiness, blessing, and goodness.
Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi: A person must have relations with his wife prior to embarking on a voluntary trip, even if it is close to her Veses.
A BIT MORE
1. He separated from his wife because Klal Yisrael was commanded to do so prior to Matan Torah, and Moshe Rabeinu never knew when he would speak to the Shechinah. Therefore, it was not appropriate for him to stay with his wife. He broke the Luchos because if a Mumar may not even eat the Korban Pesach, then certainly he may not receive the entire Torah, and after the sin of the Egel ha'Zahav, Klal Yisrael were regarded as Mumarim. He added a day prior to Matan Torah because one of the two days that Hashem commanded them to separate from their wives was not a complete day, as the night had already passed.
2. Beis Shamai derives this from Adam ha'Rishon, who had both Kayin and his twin sister, and Hevel and his twin sister. After the death of Hevel, Adam had Shes to make up for the loss of Hevel.
3. The reasoning of Beis Hillel is that the verse says that the world was created to be settled. Once a person has one child, he has already done his part toward settling the world.
4. Even though the servant had children before he was freed, he has not fulfilled the Mitzvah of Peru u'Revu.
5. Rav Huna: Even if the children died, the Mitzvah of Peru u'Revu has been fulfilled, because merely bringing the children into the world hastens the Mashi'ach. Rebbi Yochanan: It is not a fulfillment of Peru u'Revu, because the principle purpose of Peru u'Revu is to settle the world, and that is not being accomplished.
6. They all died a terrible death of asphyxiation during the period between Pesach and Shavuos. After their deaths, the world was desolate, until Rebbi Akiva went to the south and taught Torah to five great students: Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Yehudah, Rebbi Yosi, Shimon, and Elazar.
BREAKING THE LUCHOS
The Gemara says that Moshe Rabeinu broke the Luchos because of a Kal va'Chomer: If a Mumar cannot eat the Korban Pesach, then certainly Klal Yisrael after the sin of the Egel ha'Zahav cannot receive the entire Torah. The Maharsha asks, why did Moshe wait until he descended from the mountain to break the Luchos? If this is a valid Kal va'Chomer, he should have broken the Luchos immediately! The Midrash answers that he delayed breaking the Luchos until he saw the Egel himself, in order to teach us that if a person hears testimony from one individual he should not accept the testimony, no matter how much he trusts the witness. The Sefer Ikarim answers that a person is more affected by something he sees with his own eyes than with something that he is intellectually aware of but has not witnessed.
Once a person has a son and a daughter, he has fulfilled the Mitzvah of Peru u'Revu, as long as the son and daughter are not infertile. (Shulchan Aruch EH 1:5)
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