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|12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS|
YEVAMOS 21 - Dedicated by Mr. David Kornfeld in memory of the members of his family, Hashem Yikom Damam, who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers in the Holocaust. (The exact date of their passing is not known; their Yahrzeit is observed on 4 Sivan.) May our Torah learning and teaching be l'Iluy Nishmas Mr. Kornfeld's mother (Mirel bas Yakov Mordechai), brothers (Shraga Feivel, Aryeh Leib and Yisachar Dov, sons of Mordechai), grandfather (Reb Yakov Mordechai ben David - Shpira) and aunt (Charne bas Yakov Mordechai - wife of Reb Moshe Aryeh Cohen z'l).
Yibum between a Kohen Gadol and a widow from Nisu'in is not valid and does not allow the Tzarah to remarry.
There is a dispute between Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Elazar about whether Yibum between a Kohen Gadol and a widow from Eirusin allows the Tzarah to remarry. (1)
Cheating customers with inaccurate scales is punished more harshly than the sin of immorality. (2)
Without the decrees of Shlomo ha'Melech, the Torah would be like a box without handles. After Shlomo ha'Melech instituted the prohibition of Sheniyos (secondary Arayos), the Torah is like a box with handles.
If Shlomo ha'Melech had not instituted the prohibition of Sheniyos, the prohibitions of Arayos would have been unguarded, and it would have been more likely that a person would stumble in the transgression of Arayos.
The prohibition of Sheniyos includes a grandmother, the wife of the father's mother, the wife of a grandfather, the wife of a father's brother from the mother, the wife of a mother's brother from the father, and the daughter-in-law of both a son and a daughter. (3)
The wife of a stepson is not included in the decree of Sheniyos, even though the daughter of a stepson is prohibited by the Torah because she is the granddaughter of his wife.
All of the Sheniyos are prohibited not only for that generation but also for the generation before and after. For example, a grandmother, great- grandmother, and great-great-grandmother are all prohibited. However, there are three exceptions according to Rav, and four exceptions according to Ze'iri.
The Rabanan prohibited the daughter-in-law of the daughter as a Gezeirah so that a person will not confuse it with the daughter-in-law of the son.
There is a dispute between Rav and Rav Safra about whether one's mother's maternal brother's wife is included in the prohibition of Sheniyos.
Ameimar permits the wife of the brother of the father's father and the sister of the father's father.
A BIT MORE
1. One opinion maintains that an Aseh supersedes a Lo Sa'aseh, and thus it is a valid Yibum. The other opinion maintains that in a case like this, it is possible to fulfill both the Aseh and the Lo Sa'aseh by doing Chalitzah, and the principle of Aseh Docheh Lo Sa'aseh does not apply.
2. This is because repentance is possible for a transgression of immorality (as long as a Mamzer was not brought into the world), while it is impossible to repent after cheating countless people with inaccurate scales.
3. The exceptions are his father's maternal brother's wife, his mother's paternal brother's wife, his daughter's daughter-in-law, and, according to Ze'iri, his mother's father's wife.
THE DECREES OF SHLOMO HA'MELECH
The Gemara says that after Shlomo ha'Melech instituted the prohibition of Sheniyos (secondary Arayos), the Torah was like a box with Oznayim (lit. ears). The word "Oznayim" is used for the decrees of Shlomo ha'Melech, because his decrees strengthened the Oral Torah. The Oral Torah is analogous to ears since the Oral Torah may not be written down, and thus the only way to learn it is to listen to one's Rebbi. The Written Torah is analogous to eyes because it may be learned only while looking at the Sefer; it may not be learned by heart. Therefore, the verse says, "An ear listens and an eye sees; Hashem made both of them." This verse is a reference to the two parts of the Torah, the Oral Torah and the Written Torah. The Oral Torah is the ear and the Written Torah is the eye. (Ben Yehoyada)
The punishment for inaccurate scales is very severe because it is impossible to do proper repentance, and also because it is considered a denial of Yetzi'as Mitzrayim. (Shulchan Aruch CM 231:19)
Distorting one's scales is regarded as a denial of Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, because a person distorts his scales in secret, making sure that no one can see him, and yet he is not afraid of Hashem because he does not believe in the Divine Providence of Hashem. Anyone who denies the Divine Providence also denies Yetzi'as Mitzrayim, because that is when the Divine Providence of Hashem became obvious to all by means of the miracles and wonders that accompanied Yetzi'as Mitzrayim. (SEMA)
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