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If a woman says that the house was set on fire and filled with smoke, and she escaped and her husband was killed, she is not believed. (1)
If a woman says that they were attacked by bandits and she escaped and her husband was killed, she is believed. (2)
A single witness who testifies that a husband died is believed.
If a woman says that her husband drowned, it is the same as saying that he was killed at war.
If a hundred women testify that a man died, it is the same as the testimony of one witness.
If witnesses testify that they saw someone drown in water that has no end, his wife is forbidden. (3)
If a utensil is found with the letter "Tav" on it, the contents are Terumah. Rebbi Yosi says that the contents are Chulin. (4)
Abaye: If witnesses testify that a certain person from a certain place died, we are concerned for the possibility of two people with the same name from the same place. (5)
A BIT MORE
1. She is not believed because perhaps her husband miraculously escaped just as she did.
2. Being attacked by bandits is not the same as a war: a woman is not afraid of bandits and she will stay there until she is sure that her husband died.
3. If the body of water is so large that one cannot see dry land from all four sides, it is regarded as water that has no end.
4. Rebbi Yosi: We assume that at one point the utensil held Terumah but the Terumah was removed and replaced with Chulin. Tana Kama: If the owner had removed the Terumah, he would have scraped off the letter "Tav." Rebbi Yosi responds that perhaps he forgot to scrape off the letter, or he purposely left the letter so that people would not take the produce.
5. Rava: As long as there is no Chazakah that there are two people with the same name from that place, we do not have to be concerned with the possibility.
A SMALL BATTLE
If a woman says that they were attacked by bandits, and she escaped and her husband was killed, she is believed. Rashi explains that a woman is not afraid of bandits, because she knows that they will spare her in order to be promiscuous with with her, and therefore she will stay there until she is sure that her husband died. Tosfos explains that since a woman does not engage in battle, the bandits will have mercy on her and spare her. However, in a place of war, since arrows and stones are falling indiscriminately, she is afraid to stay there. The Mordechai writes that if there is a small skirmish and the enemy is attacking only the men and not the women, the women are not afraid to stay there, and therefore such a situation has the same law as the case of the bandits.
ATTACKED BY BANDITS
If a woman says that they were attacked by bandits, and she escaped and her husband was killed, she is believed, because it is not usual for bandits to kill a woman. Therefore, we are not concerned that just as she escaped, perhaps her husband also escaped. (Shulchan Aruch EH 17:54)
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