MEGILAH 20 - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter, Shifra, and family. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael be preserved in all of his descendants.

1)

(a)On what grounds did the Chachamim reject Rebbi Yehudah's own testimony that, as a Katan, he once read the Megilah 'above' Rebbi Tarfon and the Rabanan, who did not protest (proving that the reading of a Katan is acceptable)?

(b)What additional reason did they have for rejecting Rebbi's (similar) testimony (that he once read as a Katan in front of Rebbi Yehudah, who did not protest either)?

(c)How do we explain the fact that they did not say 'Ein Mevi'in Re'ayah min ha'Katan', like the Chachamim of Rebbi Yehudah?

1)

(a)The rejected Rebbi Yehudah's own testimony that, as a Katan, he once read the Megilah 'above' Rebbi Tarfon and the Rabanan, who did not protest (proving that the reading of a Katan is acceptable) - on the grounds that one cannot accept the testimony of a Katan (even after he grows up).

(b)They also rejected Rebbi's (similar) testimony (that he once read as a Katan in front of Rebbi Yehudah, who did not protest either) - because how can one bring a proof for Rebbi Yehudah's opinion from Rebbi Yehudah?!

(c)They did not say 'Ein Mevi'in Re'ayah min ha'Katan', like the Chachamim of Rebbi Yehudah, not because they did not hold of it, but - because the Tana is merely adding a second refutation to that one, as if to say 'Besides that refutation, here's another one.

2)

(a)What is the earliest time that our Mishnah gives for reading the Megilah (l'Chatchilah)?

(b)When the Tana forbids Tevilah too, before that time, what Tevilah is he talking about?

(c)What will be the Din regarding a Tamei Mes and a Zav who Tovel after the seventh day?

(d)Besides Haza'ah (which is also forbidden on the night of the third and seventh days of Tum'as Mes), who else may not Tovel before sunrise?

2)

(a)The earliest time given by our Mishnah for reading the Megilah (l'Chatchilah) - is Hanetz ha'Chamah (sunrise).

(b)When the Tana forbids Tevilah too, before that time, he is talking about - the Tevilah of Tamei Mes or of a Zav on their seventh day.

(c)The prohibition of Toveling by night - is confined to the seventh night. From then on, a Tamei Mes or a Zav who has not yet Toveled, may Tovel whenever he wishes.

(d)Besides Haza'ah (which is also forbidden on the night of the third and seventh days of Tum'as Mes) - a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom (a woman who had one or two sightings during her period of Zivus) may not Tovel before sunrise.

3)

(a)What is the Din bedi'Eved, in the above cases, regarding someone who did Tovel before sunrise? Is he Yotzei or not?

3)

(a)bedi'Eved, in the above cases, someone who did Tovel before sunrise - is Yotzei bedi'Eved (provided the Tevilah was performed after Amud ha'Shachar).

4)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Esther "v'ha'Yamim ha'Eileh Nizkarim v'Na'asim"?

(b)Why does this not pose a Kashya on Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who obligates the first reading of the Megilah at nighttime?

(c)From where do we learn that Milah must be performed by day?

(d)We know that Haza'ah must be performed by day, from the Pasuk "v'Hizah ha'Tahor al ha'Tamei ba'Yom ha'Shelishi ... ". From where do we know that the same applies to Tevilah on the seventh day?

4)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Esther "v'ha'Yamim ha'Eileh Nizkarim v'Na'asim" - that the Megilah must be read by day.

(b)This does not pose a Kashya on Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who obligates the first reading of the Megilah at night-time - because we are speaking about the second (day) reading.

(c)We learn that Milah must be performed by day - from the Pasuk in Sazri'a "u'va'Yom ha'Shemini Yimol".

(d)We know that Haza'ah must be performed by day, from the Pasuk "v'Hizah ha'Tahor al ha'Tamei ba'Yom ha'Shelishi ... ". And we know that the same applies to Tevilah on the seventh day - because at end of that Pasuk, the Torah writes "v'Rachatz ba'Mayim ... " (comparing Tevilah to Haza'ah).

5)

(a)Having already said 'v'Lo Tovlin', why does the Tana find it necessary to insert a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom in the Mishnah? Why might we have thought that a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom is different?

(b)Why, in any event, would it not be possible for her to Tovel in the daytime of the seventh day?

(c)When might we have thought, she may then Tovel?

(d)Why then, is she forbidden to do so? Why does she have to wait for the morning before Toveling?

5)

(a)Despite having already said 've'Lo Tovlin', the Tana finds it necessary to insert a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom in the Mishnah - because we would otherwise have compared her to the first sighting of a Zav, who is even permitted to Tovel by day, seeing as he is compared to a Ba'al Keri (who may do so).

(b)And we know that a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom cannot Tovel by day - from the Pasuk in Metzora "Kol Yemei Zovah k'Mishkav Nidasah Yihyeh Lah".

(c)We might have thought - that she may then Tovel at night, after counting a clean period after nightfall.

(d)The reason that she has to wait for the morning before Toveling is - because all counting must be done by day, as the Torah writes "v'Safrah Lah Shiv'as Yamim" (ibid.)

20b----------------------------------------20b

6)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that bedi'Eved, one is Yotzei if one hears the Megilah after Amud ha'Shachar. Why is that?

(b)Then why did the Chachamim forbid it l'Chatchilah until Hanetz ha'Chamah?

(c)How does Rava initially learn the Din of Amud ha'Shachar from the Pasuk in Bereishis "va'Yikra Elokim la'Or Yom"?

(d)How do we refute his source from the continuation of the Pasuk?

6)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that bedi'Eved, one is Yotzei if one hears the Megilah from Amud ha'Shachar - because that is when the day really begins ...

(b)... and the reason that the Chachamim forbade it l'Chatchilah until Hanetz ha'Chamah is - because they were afraid that one may mistakenly perform them before dawn-break.

(c)Initially, Rava learns the Din of Amud ha'Shachar from the Pasuk in Bereishis "va'Yikra Elokim la'Or Yom" - which he interprets to mean 'le'Meir u'Ba (meaning from the period of time between dawn-break and sunrise, when the rays of the sun first shine before it rises).

(d)We refute his source however, from the continuation of the Pasuk - "v'la'Choshech Kara Laylah" (which would then mean "and to the period when the sun sets before it becomes completely dark [i.e. the period between sunset and nightfall] He called 'night' ", which would be incorrect, due to the tradition that night only begins with nightfall.

7)

(a)So Rebbi Zeira learns it from a Pasuk in Nechemyah. What does the Pasuk there say?

(b)Why do we then need the support of a second Pasuk "v'Hayu Lanu ha'Laylah Mishmar veha'Yom Melachah"?

7)

(a)So Rebbi Zeira learns it from the Pasuk in Nechemyah - which describes how half the people would hold swords whilst the other half worked (building the walls of Yerushalayim) from dawn-break until nightfall (when the stars appeared).

(b)We need the support of a second Pasuk "v'Hayu Lanu ha'Laylah Mishmar v'ha'Yom Melachah" - because the first Pasuk only informs us that that was when they worked, but gives no indication that the period mentioned refers to 'day'.

8)

(a)Up to when does our Mishnah permit reading the Megilah?

(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Vayera "va'Yashkem Avraham ba'Boker"?

(c)The time period for the Mitzvah of cutting the barley for the Omer (on the second night of Pesach) is at nighttime. Until when may the Mitzvah be performed?

8)

(a)Our Mishnah permits reading the Megilah - all day.

(b)We learn from the Pasuk in Vayera "va'Yashkem Avraham ba'Boker" - that one should perform a Mitzvah as soon as possible ('Zerizin Makdimin b'Mitzvos').

(c)The Mitzvah of cutting the barley for the Omer (on the second night of Pesach), which must be performed at night-time - may be performed all night.

9)

(a)Halel too, like Megilah, the Tana permits all day. Rav Yosef learns it from "Zeh ha'Yom Asah Hash-m". From which Pasuk do others learn it?

(b)And the same applies to Lulav and Shofar. From where do we learn ...

1. ... Lulav?

2. ... Shofar?

(c)And it applies also to the Korban Musaf and to Tefilas Musaf, to the Viduy (confession) that the Tzibur and the Kohen Gadol (who sinned) make over their (Chatas) bull and to the Viduy of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kippur. We learn that the Korban Musaf must be brought in the day from the Pasuk in Emor "Devar Yom b'Yomo" and the Viduy on Yom Kippur from "v'Chiper Ba'ado ... " (and [a verbal] Kaparah must be performed by day). From where do we know that ...

1. ... Tefilas Musaf must be recited by day?

2. ... the Viduy of the Tzibur and of the Kohen Gadol, that sinned must be said by day?

(d)The Mishnah lists many other Mitzvos in the current list (mainly those concerning the Avodas ha'Korbanos). Which Mitzvah do we learn from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in Ki Savo "v'Amarta Lifnei Hash-m Elokecha Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis" and "ha'Yom ha'Zeh, Hash-m Elokecha Metzav'cha"?

9)

(a)Halel too, like Megilah, the Tana permits all day. Rav Yosef learns it from "Zeh ha'Yom Asah Hash-m". Others learn it from "mi'Mizrach Shemesh ad Mevo'o".

(b)And the same applies to Lulav and Shofar. We learn ...

1. ... Lulav - from "u'Lekachtem Lachem ba'Yom ha'Rishon" (Emor).

2. ... Shofar - from "Yom Teru'ah Yih'yeh Lachem" (Pinchas).

(c)And it applies also to the Korban Musaf and to Tefilas Musaf, to the Viduy (confession) that the Tzibur and the Kohen Gadol (who sinned) make over their (Chatas) bull and to the Viduy of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kippur. We learn that the Korban Musaf must be brought in the day from the Pasuk in Emor "Devar Yom b'Yomo" and the Viduy on Yom Kippur from "v'Chiper Ba'ado ... " (and [a verbal] Kaparah must be performed by day, as we shall see shortly). We know that ...

1. ...Tefilas Musaf must be recited by day - from the Korban (since it is the source of the Tefilah).

2. ... the Viduy of the Tzibur that sinned and of the Kohen Gadol must be said by day - from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "ba'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem" (regarding the verbal confession on Yom Kippur); and the Viduy of the Tzibur that sinned from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ("Kaparah" "Kaparah" from Yom Kippur).

(d)The Mishnah lists many other Mitzvos in the current list (mainly those concerning the Avodas ha'Korbanos). We learn from the juxtaposition of the Pesukim in Ki Savo "v'Amarta Lifnei Hash-m Elokecha Bi'arti ha'Kodesh min ha'Bayis" and "ha'Yom ha'Zeh, Hash-m Elokecha Metzav'cha" - that the Mitzvah of Viduy Ma'asros (on Erev Pesach of every fourth year) must be performed by day.

10)

(a)With regard to Korbanos, we learn that Shechitah must be performed by day from the Pasuk in Shoftim "b'Yom Zivchachem ... ", and all Avodos (incorporating Melikah, Kemitzah, Haktarah and Hazayah) from the Pasuk in Tzav "b'Yom Tzavoso es Bnei Yisrael" (see Tosfos DH 'li'Kemitzah'). Why can Haktarah only refer to the burning of the Kometz of the Minchah?

(b)We learn Tenufah (the waving) from the Pasuk in Emor (b'Yom Hanifchem es ha'Omer)". From where do we learn Hagashah (bringing the Kemitzah of the Minchah to the south-western corner of the Mizbe'ach)?

(c)What do we learn from the juxtaposition of the two words "v'Samach" and "v'Shachat"?

(d)We learn that giving the Sotah to drink must be performed by day from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "v'Asah Lah ha'Kohen es Kol ha'Torah ha'Zos" (Naso) and "Al-pi ha'Torah Asher Yorucha" (Shoftim). What is the latter Pasuk referring to?

(e)From where do we know that Mishpat must be done by day?

10)

(a)With regard to Korbanos, we learn that Shechitah must be performed by day from the Pasuk in Shoftim "b'Yom Zivcha'chem ... ", and all Avodos (incorporating Melikah, Kemitzah, Haktarah and Hazayah) from the Pasuk in Tzav "b'Yom Tzavoso es Bnei Yisrael" (see Tosfos DH 'li'Kemitzah'). Haktarah can only refer to the burning of the Kometz of the Minchah - because we our Mishnah is about to teach us that the burning of the limbs of the animal Korbanos may be performed all night.

(b)We learn Tenufah (the waving) from the Pasuk in Emor (b'Yom Hanifchem es ha'Omer)", and Hagashah (bringing the Kemitzah of the Minchah to the south-western corner of the Mizbe'ach) - from the juxtaposition to Tenufah (in the Parashah of Sotah).

(c)We learn from the juxtaposition of the two words "v'Samach" and "v'Shachat" - that the Semichah must be performed (immediately after the Shechitah and that it must be performed) like the Shechitah, by day.

(d)We learn that giving the Sotah to drink must be performed by day from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "v'Asah Lah ha'Kohen es Kol ha'Torah ha'Zos" (Naso) and "Al-pi ha'Torah Asher Yorucha" - which refers to judgement.

(e)... which we know must be done by day - from the Pasuk "v'Hayah b'Yom Hanchilo es Banav".

11)

(a)The Derashah of "b'Yom Tzavoso es Bnei Yisrael" (in 9a.) incorporated most of the Avodos. How is that?

(b)Why does the Tana then require an independent Derashah for ...

1. ... Shechitah?

2. ... Tenufah and Hagashah?

11)

(a)The Derashah of "b'Yom Tzavoso es Bnei Yisrael" (in 9a.) incorporates most of the Avodos - because the Pasuk continues with the words "Lehakriv es Korbeneihem, and they are either part of the Hakravah or are either compared to an Avodah that is, or are needed for the Hakravah.

(b)The Tana nevertheless requires an independent Derashah for...

1. ... Shechitah - because it is not considered an Avodah (which explains why it can be performed by a Zar - a non-Kohen).

2. ... Tenufah and Hagashah - because unlike most other Avodos, they are dispensable (i.e. the Hakravah would still be Kasher without them).

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