(a)Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, and he also rules that Pasei Bira'os are restricted to a well of spring-water. Why does he need to issue both rulings?
(a)Had Shmuel only ruled like Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava - we would have thought that he permits all public water, even that of public pits (and that Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava restricted his statement to public wells (and not pits), not to exclude public pits, but because he was referring to Rebbi Akiva, who permitted even private ones. That is why Shmuel needed to issue his second ruling (restricting Pasei Bira'os to wells of spring-water).On the other hand, had he ruled only that Pasei Bira'os are restricted to wells of spring-water - we would have thought that this applies even to private wells. That is why it was necessary for him to rule like Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, who permits Pasei Bira'os only by public ones.
(a)Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava permits carrying in a garden or an enclosure which is seventy and two thirds Amos square - under one of three conditions. What are they?
(b)According to Rebbi Yehudah, a pit, a trench or a cave is sufficient to permit carrying there. What does Rebbi Akiva hold?
(c)Rebbi Eliezer forbids carrying in a garden etc. which is not attached to a dwelling unless it is absolutely square. What does Rebbi Yossi say about this?
(d)Rebbi Ila'i heard three lenient teachings from Rebbi Eliezer: 1. that one may carry even in a garden that is a Beis Kur (thirty Sa'ah); 2. that one fulfills the Mitzvah of Maror on Pesach with a herb called Arkublin. The third is connected with Eruvei Chatzeros. What is it?
(a)Rebbi Yehudah permits carrying in a walled garden or enclosure which is seventy and two thirds Amos square - provided it contains either a guard's hut or a dwelling, or it is close to the city (so that his mind is on it constantly, making it 'Hukaf le'Dirah').
(b)According to Rebbi Akiva, none of the above are required - as long as it is seventy Amos and two thirds square, carrying there is permitted.
(c)Rebbi Yossi permits carrying in an area of seventy Amos and two thirds square - even if it is not square, provided it is not more than twice as long as it is wide.
(d)Rebbi Ila'i also heard from Rebbi Eliezer - that if one of the members of the Chatzer forgot to make an Eruv, the other members - who remembered, are permitted to carry from his house to theirs, and vice-versa.
(a)Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava issues two stringent rulings: 1. that Pasei Bira'os are confined to a public well - 2. that a garden etc. of a Beis Sasayim requires a hut, in order to carry there; Rebbi Yehudah also issues two stringent rulings: 1. Confining Pasei Bira'os to a Beis Sasayim - 2. that a Reshus ha'Rabim that runs through Pasei Bira'os negates the concession of Pasei Bira'os; Rebbi Eliezer, too, issues two stringent rulings; 1. that one is obligated to eat fourteen meals in the Succah - 2. that someone who failed to eat in the Succah on the first night of Succos must make up for that on the eve of Shemini Atzeres. How is it that Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava and Rebbi Eliezer both introduce their second statement with the word 've'Od', whereas Rebbi Yehudah does not?
(a)The reason that Rebbi Yehudah's second statement (that a Reshus ha'Rabim that runs through Pasei Bira'os negates the concession of Pasei Bira'os) does not begin with word 've'Od' - is because the Rabbanan, who answered him, introduced a concept not mentioned by him (they said to him 'Lo Amru Beis Sasayim Ela le'Ginah u'le'Karpaf' etc., which has nothing to do with Pasei Bira'os, about which he was speaking). Whereas in the first Mishnah of both Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava and Rebbi Eliezer, the Rabbanan did not do that; therefore, in their second statements, they began with the word 've'Od'.
(a)What is the Machlokes between Rebbi Akiva, who permits seventy and two thirds Amos square which does not adjoin a dwelling, and the Tana Kama (above in the Mishnah on 18a) who permits a Beis Sasayim, which is basically the same Shi'ur?
(b)What were the dimensions of the Chatzer ha'Mishkan?
(c)Then why does the Torah write in Terumah "ve'Rochav Chamishim ba'Chamishim"?
(d)How much is the Davar Mu'at that distinguishes between Rebbi Akiva's seventy Amos plus two thirds square and the Tana Kama's Beis Sasayim?
(a)A Beis Sasayim is a fraction more than seventy and two thirds Amos square. The Tana Kama permits carrying in an area of a Beis Sasayim, whereas Rebbi Akiva permits only up to seventy and two thirds Amos square.
(b)The Chatzer ha'Mishkan - was a Beis Sasayim, fifty by a hundred Amos.
(c)When the Torah writes "ve'Rochav Chamishim ba'Chamishim" - it means that one should place the Mishkan at the edge of fifty Amos, leaving fifty Amos empty in front of it, and twenty Amos on each of the other three sides.
(d)The Davar Mu'at that distinguishes between Rebbi Akiva's seventy Amos plus two thirds square and the Tana Kama's Beis Sasayim is - .05 Amah (the difference between 70.66 and 70.71 - the square root of 100 times 50 Amos).
(a)Rebbi Eliezer in our Mishnah rules that if the garden or the Karpaf of a Beis Sasayim is just one Amah longer than it is wide, one may no longer carry there. How do we amend this statement, to conform with another statement of his?
(b)How does Rebbi Eliezer then differ from Rebbi Yossi?
(a)We amend Rebbi Eliezer's statement to read - 'Im Haysah Orkah Yeser al Pi Shenayim be'Rochbah' ...
(b)Rebbi Eliezer holds that if the length of the Karpaf is more than double its width, one may not carry there. However, this Din is derived from the Chatzer ha'Mishkan; there is no Din however, that requires its length and width to be the same. Consequently, as long as the length is not twice its width, one may carry there Lechatchilah; whereas, according to Rebbi Yossi, the Karpaf really ought to be a square, and if it is even only slightly longer than it is wide, it is not ideal - though it is not Pasul unless its length is more than twice its width - according to both opinions.
(a)Shmuel is quoted as ruling both like Rebbi Yossi and like Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah. Why are both of these rulings necessary?
(a)Both ruling like Rebbi Yossi and ruling like Rebbi Akiva are leniencies, and both are necessary - because had the Gemara ruled only Rebbi Yossi, we would have thought that one may only carry there when there is a guard's-hut or a dwelling - that is why it was necessary to rule like Rebbi Akiva. On the other hand, had the Gemara ruled like Rebbi Akiva, we would have thought that the Karpaf must be square - so they ruled like Rebbi Yossi, to teach us that one may carry there, even when it is not.
(a)What is the difference between sowing seeds in an enclosure of more than a Beis Sasayim that is attached to a dwelling, or planting trees there?
(b)Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua establishes the Chumra of seeds when the sown area is more than a Beis Sasayim. Why, according to him, will it not apply, when the sown section of the enclosure is exactly a Beis Sasayim - despite the fact that it is constitutes the majority of the enclosure?
(c)Why do we initially need to establish this statement of Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua like Rebbi Shimon?
(d)What will Rebbi Shimon hold with regard to vessels that are carried from the house to the Chatzer?
(a)Sowing seeds in an enclosure of more than a Beis Sasayim that is attached to a dwelling - renders it no longer residential - since people do not usually sow seeds in their places of residence; whereas planting trees does not - because it is normal to plant trees in one's place of residence.
(b)According to Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua, the above Chumra of more than a Beis Sasayim that is sown, will not apply if the sown section of the enclosure is exactly a Beis Sasayim - since carrying in a Karpaf of a Beis Sasayim is permitted even when it is not attached to a dwelling).
(c)We initially establish this statement of Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua like Rebbi Shimon - because otherwise, the sown area (a Karpaf) and the un-sown area (a Chatzer) would forbid each other to carry in either, since they open into each other completely. And it is Rebbi Shimon who permits carrying there, because, since both areas belong to one person, they are all considered like one Reshus.
(d)Rebbi Shimon permits carrying from the Karpaf to the Chatzer and vice-versa - only as regards vessels which were lying in either of the two Reshuyos when Shabbos entered, but not vessels that were carried on Shabbos from the house to either Reshus.
(a)What is the problem with establishing the initial statement regarding a sown area in a Karpaf like Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua (in 7b)? What problem does the Gemara have with the fact that the sown section constitutes the majority of the field?
(b)The Gemara therefore re-words Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua's statement. He now refers to the inference that the Gemara makes permitting carrying in the un-sown section, if only a minority of the entire enclosure was sown; on which Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua comments - that that only applies if that minority is less than a Beis Sasayim, but if it is a Beis Sasayim, it is Asur. Like whom does he hold?
(c)Rav Yirmiyah mi'Difti's has a more lenient version of Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua's statement. What is it?
(a)The problem with the above statement (which permits carrying in the unsown (minority) section of the area of more than a Beis Sasayim, since the sown section is not more than a Beis Sasayim) - is that, even according to Rebbi Shimon, the small un-sown section should be Batel to the majority of the area which is sown, which means that he is being permitted to carry in an area which is more than a Beis Sasayim which is not Hukaf le'Dirah!
(b)Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua, who adds that that only applies if the minority was less than a Beis Sasayim, but if it was a Beis Sasayim, it is Asur - holds like the Rabbanan of Rebbi Shimon, who maintain that each domain is independent, and one is forbidden to carry there, even though there is nobody living there.
(c)Rav Yirmiyah mi'Difti learns that Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua adds to the initial statement ('Ha Mi'uta Shari'), that that speaks by a Beis Sasayim (like Rebbi Shimon), but by more than a Beis Sasayim, it will be Asur to carry there (even according to Rebbi Shimon, as we explained in the previous question).