hebrew
1)

What does the Torah mean when it writes that Bil'am saw Amalek?

1.

Rashi: It means that he saw the punishment (the downfall) of Amalek.

2.

Ramban, Rashbam and Targum Onkelos: It means that he actually saw Amalek from the vantage point where he was standing. 1


1

See Ramban.

2)

Why does Bil'am refer to Amalek as "Reishis Goyim"?

1.

Rashi: Because they were the first to attack Yisrael 1 (after they became a nation).

2.

Ramban: Because they were a leading power among the nations. 2


1

See also Ba'al ha'Turim.

2

Ramban: Due to their great strength and fighting ability, as is evident from the battle against Yisrael, recorded at the end of Beshalach. See Ramban.

3)

What did Bil'am mean when he concluded "ve'Achariso Adei Oveid"?

1.

Rashi: He meant that ultimately, Yisrael will destroy Amalek. 1

2.

Ramban: Although they are a mighty nation, 2 they will perish more than any other nation. 3

3.

Targum Onkelos: 'Ultimately, they will be destroyed forever'.

4.

Targum Yonasan: 'Ultimately, in the days of Mashi'ach, they (Amalek) will join forces with the nations of the east to wage war against Yisrael, but all of them will be destroyed forever'.


1

Rashi: As the Torah writes in Devarim 25:19 "Timcheh Es Zeicher Amalek!" Rashi in Koheles (8:9): 'I saw and I took to heart ... how one person dominated another and overpowered him, and how ultimately, it turned out to his detriment: Amalek overpowered Yisrael, but in the end "ve'Achriso Adei Oveid" - and that is what happened to Nevuchadnetzar and to Sancheriv'.

2

Refer to 24:20:2:2.

3

Ramban: As the Torah writes in Sh'mos 17:14 - "Ki Machoh Emcheh es Zeicher Amalek!"

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