hebrew
1)

What are "Rosh Tzurim" and "Gevahos" referring to?

1.

Rashi: "Rosh Tzurim" and "Gevahos" refer to their beginnings - the Avos and the Imahos, respectively 1 who form the powerful base from which Yisrael descended.

2.

Ramban and Rashbam: 'Because I see them from the mountain-tops and from the top of the hill (that they are alone and other nations are not reckoned together with them - Rashbam). 2

3.

Targum Yonasan: 'I see that this nation is led on the merit of the righteous Avos, who are compared to mountains, and of the Imahos who are compared to hills. 3


1

Lev Eliyahu (Bereishis p.101): Klal Yisrael is above nature

2)

What does "Hen Am Levadad Yishkon" mean?

1.

Rashi (citing Targum Onkelos): It means that they are a nation who on the merit of their ancestors, will inherit the World to Come alone.

2.

Rashi #2: 'When Yisrael rejoice, no other nation rejoices together with them'. 1

3.

Ramban: 'That they alone are as numerous as the dust of the earth, which nobody can count; neither can I count the four camps of Yisrael'. 2

4.

Rashbam: Refer to 23:9:1:2.

5.

Targum Yonasan: 'They alone will inherit the world to come because they do not live the lifestyle of the nations'.

6.

Mishnas R. Aharon (4, p.25): The entire world was on one side, and Avraham was on the other side (Bereishis Rabah 42:8). This nature is an inheritance from the Avos. It is like a ladder to ascend the mountain of [Avodas] Hashem.

7.

Yalkut Shimoni (768): 'Hen' in Greek means one. Yisrael are not considered with any other nation, like the letters of 'Hen'. Aleph joins with Tes (their combined Gematriya is 10), Beis with Ches


1

Rashi: See Devarim 32:12.

2

Ramban: He is prophesying that Yisrael stand to increase and not to decrease. See Ramban.

3

Ohr Chadash (on Megilas Esther, 3:8): This is Yisrael's strength; "Hen Am k'Lavi

3)

What is the meaning of "u'va'Goyim Lo Yischashav"?

1.

Rashi #1 (citing Targum Onkelos): And they will not be destroyed together with the other nations. 1

2.

Rashi #2: When the other nations have it good, Yisrael share in the benefits without detracting from their reward.


1

Rashi: Who will ultimately perish, as the Pasuk states in Yirmiyah, 30:11.

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