hebrew
1)

What is the gist of the covenant that Lavan made with Ya'akov? Why did he begin with the word "v'Atah"?

1.

Seforno: What he is saying is 'Now that it is clear that I am not out to harm you, 1 let us make a covenant that will also guarantee that you will not harm me!'


1

Refer to 31:43:1:2*

2)

To whom (what) was he referring when he said 'v'Hayah l'Eid Beini u'Veinecha'?

1.

Rashi: He was referring to Hakadosh-Baruch-Hu. 1

2.

Ramban 2 : He was referring to the covenant, 3 including oaths and curses that would take effect on whoever would break it. Alternatively, he was referring to something concrete on which the covenant would take effect. 4


1

Tosfos ha'Shalem (1, citing R. Efrayim): To honor Yakov, Hashem appeared to Lavan, so Lavan said "see, Elokim is a witness between us."

2

This is also implied by Targum Onkelos and Targum Yonasan.

3

See Sifsei Chachamim.

4

To which Ya'akov responded by putting up a stone (See also Pasuk 52).

3)

רש"י: והיה לעד - הקדוש ברוך הוא: אולי הברית תהיה לעד?

1.

גור אריה: 'ברית' זה לשון נקבה, ואם הברית מעידה, צריך היה לכתוב 'והייתה לעד'.

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