hebrew
1)

What are Mekusharos and Atufim?

1.

Targum Onkelos, Targum Yonason, Rashi, Rashbam (41, 42): Mekusharos 1 are those that become pregnant early 2 . Atufim are those that become pregnant late. 3

2.

Moshav Zekenim (37): Mekusharos are males tied [so they cannot mate]. Atufim are sheep totally wrapped [to protect their wool].

3.

Tosfos ha'Shalem (40:4): Atufim are fat animals that will give birth by themselves. Mekusharos are barren animals.

4.

Hadar Zekenim (38): Mekusharos are born in summer, and Atufim in winter (when the sheep is covered with wool. In summer, it is shorn.)


1

Ramban (37): Mekusharos are males that constantly follow the females, and are inextricably bound to them - from the Lashon "v'Nafsho Keshurah be'Nafsho" (Vayigash 44:30).The resulting babies are called "Mekusharos" after their fathers. Some say that Mekusharos are strong; their limbs are tightly-knit. Atufim are weaker, and less lustful.

2

Just like people tie a string around Bechoros (Da'as Zekenim 41) or Bikurim (Rosh 41), Yakov tied around the forelegs of a Bechor.

3

Rashi, citing Menachem: Ha'Atufim are totally covered in fleece, and are not interested in being heated through mating.

2)

What are Mekusharos and Atufim?

1.

Targum Onkelos, Targum Yonason, Rashi, Rashbam (41, 42): Mekusharos 1 are those that become pregnant early 2 . Atufim are those that become pregnant late. 3

2.

Moshav Zekenim (37): Mekusharos are males tied [so they cannot mate]. Atufim are sheep totally wrapped [to protect their wool].

3.

Tosfos ha'Shalem (40:4): Atufim are fat animals that will give birth by themselves. Mekusharos are barren animals.

4.

Hadar Zekenim (38): Mekusharos are born in summer, and Atufim in winter (when the sheep is covered with wool. In summer, it is shorn.)


1

Ramban (37): Mekusharos are males that constantly follow the females, and are inextricably bound to them - from the Lashon "v'Nafsho Keshurah be'Nafsho" (Bereishis 44:30).The resulting babies are called "Mekusharos" after their fathers. Some say that Mekusharos are strong; their limbs are tightly-knit. Atufim are weaker, and less lustful.

2

Just like people tie a string around Bechoros (Da'as Zekenim 41) or Bikurim (Rosh 41), Yakov tied around the forelegs of a Bechor.

3

Rashi, citing Menachem: Ha'Atufim are totally covered in fleece, and are not interested in being heated through mating.

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