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(a) We reject Rabah's suggestion too however, on the basis of a Beraisa, which explains that in spite of having already learned an Onesh and an Azharah for Ha'ala'as Chutz, we learn from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos ...
1. ... "Lema'an asher Yavi'u B'nei Yisrael es Zivcheihem asher Heim Zovchim al-P'nei ha'Sadeh" - that if one offers Kodshim that one declared Hekdesh at a time when Shechutei Chutz are permitted ba'Chutz, it is as if one sacrificed them in the middle of a field.
2. ... "Veheivi'um la'Hashem" - that one transgresses a Mitzvas Asei if one does so.
3. ... "ve'Lo Yizbechu Od" - that one contravenes a Lo Sa'aseh as well.
(b) And we then learn from the Pasuk "Chukas Olam Tih'yeh Zos Lachem le'Dorosam" - that one is not Chayav Kareis ("Zos", 've'Lo Acheres').
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(a) Abaye theefore learns the punishment by Shechitas Chutz, where the Torah wrote a punishment (Kareis), but not a warning, from a 'Kal va'Chomer from Ha'ala'as Chutz, where it wrote a warning as well as a punishment.
(b) Ravina asked Rav Ashi that, in that case, the Torah should not have needed to write a specific La'av by Cheilev (where the Torah wrote Kareis), because, by the same token, we could learn it from Neveilah - with a 'Kal 'va'Chomer' (since the Torah wrote a La'av by it, but no Kareis).
(c) Rava refuted this Kashya, as well as a similar Kashya from Tamei Sheratzim (where. like by Neveilah, the Torah writes an Azharah, but no Kareis) with the Pircha that Neveilah and Tamei Sheratzim possess the Chumra that they make others Tamei (whereas Cheilev does not).
(d) We cannot learn Cheilev using the same 'Kal va'Chomer' from ...
1. ... Orlah and K'lai ha'Kerem - because they are Asur be'Hana'ah as well, which Cheilev is not.
2. ... Shevi'is - because Shevi'is transfers its Isur on to whatever one exchanges it for (whereas Cheilev does not).
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When we conclude that we cannot learn Cheilev from Terumah (or from any of the above, for that matter), because they are not 'Hutar mi'Chelalam', we mean - that Cheilev possesses a Kula which none of the others possess, in that it does not apply to Chayos.
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(a) Based on the current 'Kal va'Chomer' regarding the Azharah on Shechutei Chutz, the problem Rava has with Pesach and Milah is - why the Mishnah in K'risus lists them as only an Asei, when we ought to learn from Mosir ha'Pesach (someone who leaves over some of the Pesach, which is not Chayav Kareis [see Tosfos DH 'Teisi']) that they are also subject to a La'av (since they receive Kareis).
(b) When Rav Ashi put this Kashya to Rav Kahana say, he replied that we cannot learn Pesach from 'Mosir ba'Pesach' - since the Pesach can be remedied (by bringing a Pesach Sheini), whereas 'Mosir ba'Pesach' cannot. Note, it was obvious already at the outset that it is possible to remedy Milah, seeing as one is no longer Chayav Kareis, from the moment that one performs Milah (see Tzon Kodshim).
(c) The problem with learning the Azharah of Shechutei Chutz from that of Ha'ala'as Chutz with a 'Kal- va'Chomer', like Abaye currently suggests, is - that it contravenes the principle 'Ein Onshin min ha'Din' (which means that one cannot learn a punishment from a 'Kal-va'Chomer' [even according to the Tana who holds 'Mazhirin min ha'Din']).
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(a) So we finally quote Rebbi Yochanan (on the following Amud), who learns Shechutei Chutz from Ha'ala'as Chutz - (not with a 'Kal-va'Chomer, but) with a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ('Hava'ah' 'Hava'ah'), which is not subject to Pirchos (because unlike a 'Kal va'Chomer, it is Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai).
(b) Rava learns it from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Sham Ta'aleh Olosecha, ve'Sham Ta'aseh" - by means of a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ("Sham" "Sham"), comparing any other Avodos that one performs outside the Azarah to Ha'ala'ah.
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