ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
Prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
1) click for question
(a) Rebbi Ami Amar Rebbi Elazar rules that, in a case where an animal is inside the Azarah and its foot is outside, if someone first ...
1. ... cuts its foot and then Shechts it - it is Kasher.
2. ... first Shechts it and then cuts its foot - it is Pasul, because the blood of the foot (which is Pasul because of Yotzei), mixes with the blood of the Shechitah and falls with it into the bowl (even if he does not cut its foot, as we will explain later).
(b) The problem with Rebbi Elazar's first statement is - that it is now a Ba'al-Mum, and is therefore Pasul.
(c) So we amend Rebbi Ami Amar Rebbi Elazar's statement to - 'Chatach ve'Achar-Kach Kibel Kesheirah ... '. This too, is a problem however - due to Rebbi Zeira's ruling that declares Pasul a B'chor whose ear is nicked before the Kabalas ha'Dam ...
(d) ... which he learn from the Pasuk in Vayikra "Velakach mi'Dam ha'Par" - implying that the Par must not change its status before the Kabalas ha'Dam.
(e) Rav Chisda Amar Avimi therefore establishes 'Chatach' to mean that he cuts the flesh up to the bone - which is sufficient to make the animal bleed, but is not considered a Mum (see Shitah Mekubetzes).
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(a) The reason we initially give to explain Rebbi Elazar's first ruling 'Kibel ve'Achar-Kach Chatach, Pesulah''Kibel ve'Achar-Kach Chatach, Pesulah' is - because the blood of the foot (which is Pasul because of Yotzei, as we explained earlier) mixes with the blood of the neck and falls into the bowl ('Achar-Kach Chatach' is not relevant, and is only mentioned to balance 'Chatach ve'Achar-Kach Kibel).
(b) This teaches us - that the blood that is absorbed in the limbs of the body is considered blood (even with regard to being Chayav Kareis for drinking it. See Tosfos DH 'Sh'ma Minah'), and not just water (which would not become Pasul because of Yotzei).
(c) We reject this proof however - on the grounds that it is not because of the blood that the Korban is Pasul, but because of the Shamnunis (fatty juices in the body), which is considered Basar, and which also renders the Korban Pasul, because it mixes with the blood and flows into the bowl together with it ...
(d) There is no proof from Rebbi Elazar that the flesh of Kodshim Kalim that left the Azarah before the Zerikah is Pasul because of Yotzei - because maybe he is speaking about Kodshei Kodshim.
(e) In fact, they might not be Pasul (like the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan later in the Masechta) - since they are destined to leave the Azarah anyway, after the Zerikah (seeing as they can be eaten anywhere in Yerushalayim).
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(a) The Shechitah and Kabalas ha'Dam of Kodshei Kodshim must take place on the north side of the Azarah. The Beraisa rules that if someone stands in the south of the Azarah and ...
1. ... Shechts Kodshei Kodshim that are standing in the north - his Shechitah is Kasher.
2. ... receives the blood of the same animal - his Kabalah is Pasul.
3. ... leans over until his head and most of him is in the north - it is as if he is standing in the north, and even his Kabalah is Kasher.
(b) The difference between someone who Shechts standing in the south and a Kohen who receives the blood standing in the south - is the fact that the latter is obligated to stand in the north, whereas in the case of the former, the Torah writes "ve'Shachat Oso" (and we Darshen ' "Oso" be'Tzafon, ve'Ein ha'Shochet ba'Tzafon').
(c) The Beraisa rules that if after the Shechitah, an animal of Kodshei Kodshim that, in its death-throes, runs into the south of the Azarah and back, it is Kasher - because the Din of Yotzei only applies where there is a Mechitzah, but not between the north and south of the Azarah, where there is not.
(d) The Tana only adds that the animal ran back - because of the Seifa, where it is a Chidush (as we shall see).
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(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... in Vayikra "u'Shechato Pesach Ohel Mo'ed" - that Kodshim Kalim must be Shechted in the Azarah.
2. ... in Re'ei "La'amod Lifnei Hash-m Le'shorso" - that their blood must also be received (in a K'li Shareis) in the Azarah.
(b) The Din regarding the Shechitah and the Kabalas ha'Dam of Kodshei Kodshim that we just discussed pertains to Kodshim Kalim, too. If after the Shechitah, an animal of Kodshim Kalim, in its death throes, runs out of the Azarah - it is Pasul because of Yotzei (even though it ran back [because it left the Mechitzah of the Azarah]).
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "be'Vo'am el Ohel Mo'ed" - that the Kohen is obligated to actually stand in the Azarah when receiving the blood of Kodshim Kalim, and it is not sufficient to stand outside and lean over (Rosho ve'Rubo), like he can by Kodshei Kodshim.
(d) We refute the proof from here that the flesh of Kodshim Kalim that leaves the Azarah before the Zerikah is Pasul because of Yotzei - on the grounds that maybe it is because of the fat-tail and the lobe of the liver (which always have a Din of Kodshei Kodshim, irrespective of the status of the Korban) that the Beraisa says Pasul.
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(a) Shmuel's father was testing his son. When his father asked him what the Din will be if the Kodshim Kalim animal that is to be Shechted is ...
1. ... standing inside the Azarah, but its hind-legs are outside - he replied that it is Pasul because the Torah writes "Vehevi'um la'Hashem" (implying the the entire animal must be standing in the Azarah).
2. ... suspended above the floor of the Azarah - he replied that it was Kasher (because the air of the Azarah has the Kedushah of the Azarah).
(b) After correcting his son, based on the Pasuk in Pinchas "ve'Shachat Oso al Yerech ha'Mizbe'ach (precluding the air from being a location of Shechitah), he then objected to his next response, invalidating the Shechitah if it was the Shochet who was suspended - based on the Pasuk "Oso al Yerech", 've'Lo Shochet al Yerech'.
(c) And he objected to his ruling that ...
1. ... if a suspended Kohen performed Kabalah, it is Kasher, too - on the grounds that this is not the normal way of performing the Avodah, and is therefore Pasul.
2. ... if a Kohen performed Kabalas ha'Dam from the neck of a suspended Korban, it is Pasul for the same reason - on the basis of the previous Pasuk "Veshachat ... al Yerech", 've'Lo ve'Kibel al Yerech'.
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(a) Abaye maintains that by Kodshei Kodshim, all the above cases are Pasul except for where the suspended Shochet Shechted the Korban, whereas by Kodshim Kalim they are all Kasher except for where he received the blood. It transpires that he disagrees with Shmuel's father in the case - where the Shochet Shechted the Kodesh Kodshim animal whilst it was suspended above the north side of the Azarah ...
(b) ... where the latter maintains that the air of the Tzafon does not have the Kedushah of Tzafon, whereas Rava, who holds that it does (because if the air of the Azarah has the Kedushah of the Azarah, why should the air of Tzafon not have the Kedushah of Tzafon).
(c) Rava draws a distinction between Kodshei Kodshim - which cannot be Shechted in the air, and Kodshim Kalim, which can, because the Torah did not write 'Yerech' by Kodshim Kalim.
(d) The reason that Shmuel's father did not mention this distinction is - because he did not discuss Kodshim Kalim at all.
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(a) When Rebbi Yirmiyah asked Rebbi Zeira what the Din will be if the Shochet of Kodshim Kalim is standing inside the Azarah, but his 'Tzitzis' are outside - he meant to ask whether it mattered whether the Shochet's hair is outside the Azarah, seeing as the rest of him is inside.
(b) Rebbi Zeira answered by citing two Pesukim "Vehevi'um la'Hashem" (Acharei-Mos) and "be'Vo'am el Ohel Mo'ed" (Ki Sisa), by which he meant - that just as the former Pasuk implies that the animal must be completely inside the Azarah, so too, does the latter Pasuk imply that the Shochet must be inside.
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(a) Our Mishnah rules that if the Kohen places the blood ...
1. ... on the ramp, or on the Mizbe'ach, but on the south-eastern corner where there is no Yesod, the Korban is Pasul, but one is not Chayav Kareis for eating it, and the same applies to a case where he places the blood ...
2. ... of a Korban which ought to be placed below the Chut ha'Sikra (dividing the top half of the Mizbe'ach from the lower half), above it, or vice-versa.
(b) The third case on the list discussed by the Tana is - where the Kohen places the blood which ought to be placed on the Mizbe'ach ha'Zahav (inside the Heichal), on the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah (outside in the Azarah), or vice-versa.
(c) Shmuel qualifies the Din 'Pasul' in our Mishnah - by confining it to the Korban. The owner however, is atoned for.
(d) He learns this from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "va'Ani Nesativ Lachem al ha'Mizbe'ach Lechaper" - implying that as long as the blood reaches the Mizbe'ach, the atonement is accomplished.
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(a) "Lechaper" (in the Pasuk that we just quoted) comes to preclude - a Heter to eat the Basar of the Korban.
(b) Shmuel teaches us - that 'she'Lo bi'Mekomo ki'Mekomo Dami' (anywhere on the Mizbe'ach, even not in the correct place, is considered its place).
(c) And we learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei "ve'Dam Zevachecha Yishafech, ve'ha'Basar Tochel" - that the Heter to eat a Korban only takes effect after the Zerikas ha'Dam.
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(a) The Mishnah in the next Perek learns with regard to the case in our Mishnah, that if there is any Dam ha'Nefesh left, a Kasher Kohen should receive it and sprinkle it. The problem this poses on Shmuel is - that if as he maintains, 'she'Lo bi'Mekomo ki'Mekomo Dami', why is this necessary.
(b) We refute the suggestion that it is necessary to receive the blood and sprinkle it, to allow the Basar to be eaten - on the grounds that if sprinkling does not atone, it will not permit the Basar to be eaten either.
(c) To justify the need to receive the rest of the blood, we therefore establish that Mishnah - when it was a Pasul who Shechted the animal and who placed the blood (as indeed the Reisha of the Mishnah specifically states).
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(a) When we query this answer 'Ve'lehavi Dichuy' - we mean that - seeing as we hold 'she'Lo bi'Mekomo ki'Mekomo Dami', it is as if a Pasul person placed the blood on the right place, rendering all the blood Dachuy (rejected).
(b) And we extrapolate this from the Mishnah there 've'Chulan she'Kiblu Chutz li'Zemano ... Im Yesh Dam ha'Nefesh, Yachzor ha'Kasher Viyekabel' - implying that this is only as long as initially, he only received the blood, but if he already sprinkled it, it is Dachuy, and cannot be rectified.
(c) We conclude however - that it is not Pasul because of Dichuy, but because of P'sul Machshavah (which does not apply in our case).
(d) On this we ask two Kashyos: one, that P'sul Machshavah should apply no less to Kabalah than it does to Zerikah. The other, based on a statement of Rava, who confines P'sul Machshavah - to someone who is fit to do the Avodah (a Kohen Kasher), by something that is fit to be used for the Avodah (such as a Minchah of wheat), and only in a location which is fit to bring a Korban. Otherwise, it will not invalidate the Korban.
(e) These three things come to exclude - a Kohen Pasul (such as in our case), a Minchah of barley and where the Mizbe'ach became Pagum.
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(a) So we change the inference in the Mishnah (ve'Chulan she'Kiblo Chutz li'Zemano) from 'Zarko, Lo' to 'Shachto, Lo', resolving the Kashya from Dichuy - because, if the Din in the Mishnah extends to Zerikah too, this means that it is not Dachuy at all.
(b) The reason that there would be no Takanah if the Shechitah was performed by Pesulim with P'sul Machshavah is - because since Shechitah that is performed by Pesulin is Kasher, their P'sul Machshavah invalidates the Shechitah.
(c) In spite of having learned another Mishnah there 'Lefichach Hein Poslin be'Machshavah', we still need the current Mishnah, to teach us - that from Kabalah and onwards the P'sul Machshavah of a Pasul is not effective ...
(d) ... because of Rava's earlier ruling, disqualifying the P'sul Machshavah of someone who is not fit to serve.
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(a) The Beraisa rules that if a Kasher Kohen performs an earlier Avodah with the intention of sprinkling the blood below the Chut ha'Sikra instead of above, or vice-versa, in the right time - his Avodah is Kasher.
(b) If in the same case, the Kohen then goes on to perform the next Avodah with the intention of eating it ...
1. ... Chutz li'Mekomo - his Avodah is Pasul, and there is no Kareis for eating it.
2. ... Chutz li'Zemano - it is Pigul, and whoever eats it is Chayav Kareis.
(c) And in a case where the Kohen ...
1. ... performed the first Avodah with the intention of placing the blood in the wrong place on the following day - the Tana declares the Avodah Pasul.
2. ... then performs the second Avodah, having in mind to place the blood either Chutz li'Zemano or Chutz li'Mekomo - he rules that it is Pasul but there is no Kareis.
(d) The author of this Beraisa is Rebbi Yehudah, who holds - that even if the Kohen performs an Avodah with the intention of putting the blood down, it is also Pasul.
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