WHICH AVODOS CAN INVALIDATE A KORBAN?
(Mishnah): In the following cases, a Pesach or Chatas is Pasul:
The Shechitah, Kabalah, Holachah or Zerikah was Lo Lishmah;
Or, one of these Avodos was started Lishmah and finished Lo Lishmah, or vice-versa.
The case of Lishmah and then Lo Lishmah is when he started l'Shem Pesach, and ended l'Shem Shelamim;
Lo Lishmah and then Lishmah is when he started l'Shem Shelamim, and ended l'Shem Pesach.
Any of these four Avodos can disqualify a Korban (i.e. if it was done with improper intent);
R. Shimon says, Holachah cannot disqualify, for it is not always necessary (e.g. if the Shechitah was next to the Mizbeach);
The other three Avodos are always necessary, so they can disqualify a Korban.
R. Elazar says, Holachah where it is necessary can disqualify a Korban. Holachah where it is unnecessary cannot.
(Gemara) Question: Kabalah cannot disqualify!
(Beraisa): "V'Hikrivu" is Kabalah.
Suggestion: Perhaps it is Zerikah!
Rejection: "V'Zarku" teaches Zerikah, therefore "v'Hikrivu" is Kabalah.
"Bnei Aharon ha'Kohanim" - a Kosher Kohen must do Kabalah, while wearing Bigdei Kehunah;
R. Akiva says, we learn this because it says here "Bnei Aharon ha'Kohanim", just like it says "Bnei Aharon ha'Kohanim ha'Meshuchim Asher Milei Yadam Lechahen."
Just like there they were Kosher Kohanim wearing Bigdei Kehunah, also here.
R. Tarfon: I heard a distinction between Kabalah and Zerikah. I cannot explain it.
R. Akiva: Regarding Kabalah, (improper) intent is not like an action (it does not disqualify). Regarding Zerikah, (improper) intent is like an action (it disqualifies);
Also, if a Korban was slaughtered outside the Mikdash, one who did Kabalah is exempt, but one who does Zerikah (outside the Mikdash) is Chayav Kares.
If Pesulim (Zarim or Kohanim who may not serve) did Kabalah, they are not Chayav (Misah). If they did Zerikah, they are Chayav (Misah).
R. Tarfon: That is exactly what I heard!
Answer #1 (Rava): Intent that makes Pigul (Chutz li'Zmano) does not apply to Kabalah. Lo Lishmah applies to Kabalah.
Support (Mishnah): Any of these four Avodos can disqualify a Korban.
It does not say Mefagel!
Objection: Pigul applies to Kabalah!
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps improper intent applies only to Zerikah!
Rejection: "V'Im He'achel Ye'achel... Lo Yeratzeh" - it applies to all Avodos that permit a Korban to be eaten.
Suggestion: Perhaps we include even pouring the leftover blood (on the base of the Mizbeach) and burning the Eimurim!
Rejection: "Lo Yeratzeh ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev";
Zerikah was included among Avodos that permit a Korban to be eaten. It was singled out ("Lo Yeratzeh") to equate the other Avodos to it;
Zerikah is essential for Kaparah. (Improper intent during) it disqualifies a Korban. Also every Avodah essential for Kaparah disqualifies a Korban;
This excludes pouring leftover blood and burning the Eimurim, which are not essential for Kaparah.
Answer #2: Rather, if he said 'I slaughter with the intent to do Kabalah tomorrow', the Korban is Kosher;
If he said 'I do Kabalah with intent to pour the leftover blood tomorrow', it is Pigul.
Question (an elder): Intent to pour the leftover blood or burn the Eimurim can disqualify a Korban!
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps improper intent applies only to Avodos that permit a Korban to be eaten!
Rejection: "V'Im He'achel Ye'achel" teaches about two kinds of eating, of people and of the Mizbeach;
Therefore, pouring the leftover blood and burning the Eimurim can disqualify a Korban.
Answer: Zerikah with intent to pour the leftover blood (or burn the Eimurim) the next day is Pigul;
Pouring the leftover blood with intent to burn the Eimurim the next day is Kosher.
CAN A KORBAN BE MADE PIGUL WHILE DIPPING THE FINGER?
(Rav Yehudah brei d'R. Chiya): Dipping the finger in the blood of inner Chata'os (in order to do Zerikah) is Mefagel (if done with intent Chutz li'Zmano.
Question (Ilfa): We learn Pigul (in Chatas) from Shelamim,
Dipping the finger is not Mefagel Shelamim (since it does not apply), therefore it does not Mefagel Chatas!
Counter-question: Do we really learn Pigul from Shelamim?!
(Pigul applies only if the only Pesul was Chutz li'Zmano.) Lo Lishmah does not disqualify Shelamim, therefore it does not prevent a Shelamim (offered with an intent Chutz li'Zmano) from becoming Pigul;
If we learn Pigul only from Shelamim, there is no source to say that Lo Lishmah prevents a Chatas from becoming Pigul! (However, Mishnayos teach this law.)
Answer: You must say that a verse teaches that Pigul applies to other Korbanos.
Answer: The verse that teaches about other Korbanos teaches that dipping the finger is Mefagel Chatas.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Dipping the finger is Mefagel.
Question (Reish Lakish): We learn Pigul (in Chatas) from Shelamim. Dipping the finger does not Mefagel Shelamim, therefore it does not Mefagel Chatas!
Counter-question: Do we really learn Pigul from Shelamim?!
Lo Lishmah does not disqualify Shelamim, therefore it does not prevent a Shelamim from becoming Pigul. We cannot learn from Shelamim that Lo Lishmah prevents a Chatas from becoming Pigul!
Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Indeed, we learn from Shelamim!
Lo Lishmah disqualifies a Chatas just like intent Chutz li'Mkomo disqualifies a Shelamim;
Just like Chutz li'Mkomo prevents a Shelamim from becoming Pigul, Lo Lishmah prevents a Chatas from becoming Pigul!
Rejection (R. Yirmeyah): Chutz li'Mkomo disqualifies all Korbanos. We cannot learn to Lo Lishmah, which disqualifies only Chatas and Pesach!
Answer (R. Yirmeyah): Rather, we can learn as follows. Regarding Shelamim, anything that disqualifies (e.g. intent Chutz li'Mkomo) prevents from becoming Pigul, and (intent Chutz li'Zmano in) any essential Avodah can make Pigul. We learn to Chatas that Lo Lishmah prevents from becoming Pigul, and dipping the finger (which is essential) can make Pigul!
Support (for R. Yehoshua ben Levi - Rav Mari - Mishnah): Pigul applies to four Avodos in a Minchah - Kemitzah, putting the Kometz in a Keli, Holachah and Haktarah (burning the Kometz on the Mizbeach).
We understand how three of these are learned from Shelamim. Kemitzah is like Shechitah (it separates the part that will be offered to Hash-m), Holachah corresponds to Holachah, and Haktarah is like Zerikah;
Question: What is the source for putting the Kometz in a Keli?
Suggestion: Perhaps this is like Kabalah.
Rejection: Blood falls into the Keli by itself, but the Kohen must put the Kometz into a Keli!
Answer #1: Since it is an essential Avodah, it is important, so Pigul applies;
Likewise, dipping the finger is essential, so Pigul applies! (It is like Holachah, for it brings the blood close to the Mizbeach.)
Rejection (and Answer #2 to Question g:2): Really, it is like Kabalah;
Since both consist of putting in a Keli, they are similar, even though one is by itself and the other is not.