6) [line 2] MA'ASER SHENI (MA'ASER SHENI)
See Background to Zevachim 45:11.
7) [line 3] HA'VA'AS MAKOM - an obligation to be brought to Yerushalayim (as in Background to Zevachim 45:11:d, and below, 8:d)
8) [line 7] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons are a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They are offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim are brought.
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these seven are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land. (-Heard from a leading botanist.) (MK))
(c) Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkos. They must be returned to, and eaten in, Yerushalayim.
(d) In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit to Yerushalayim, but he does not recite the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei).
9) [line 11] B'MAH HA'TZAD (BINYAN AV)
In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" -- father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects. A "Mah ha'Tzad" (or "Tzad ha'Shaveh") refers to a Binyan Av which utilizes two verses. This derivation presumes that a law found in two contexts results from characteristics common to both, which indicates that any other context possessing these characteristics is also subject to the shared law.
10) [line 13] KEDUSHAH RISHONAH KIDSHAH L'SHA'ATAH V'KIDSHAH L'ASID LAVO - The first Sanctification brought about sanctity at that time, and brought about sanctity for the future (after the destruction)
(a) Chazal refer to three distinct sanctities when they discuss whether or not Kedushah Rishonah Kidshah l'Sha'atah v'Kidshah l'Asid Lavo: the sanctity of the Beis ha'Mikdash; the sanctity of Yerushalayim; and the sanctity of Eretz Yisrael.
(b) The Beis ha'Mikdash had to be sanctified in order for the sacrifices to be offered there. Similarly, Yerushalayim had to be sanctified in order for Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni to be eaten there. Shlomo ha'Melech sanctified the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim. According to one opinion, their Kedushah remained even after the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim were destroyed by the Babylonians and Romans. There is a Tana who argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and when Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again.
(c) Eretz Yisrael had to be sanctified in order for the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, such as Terumos and Ma'asros, to be practiced. Yehoshua sanctified Eretz Yisrael through conquest. According to one opinion, the Kedushah of the land remained even after the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael and laid waste to the land. Another Tana argues and maintains that when the Babylonians conquered Eretz Yisrael, this Kedushah ceased and the Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz no longer applied. When Ezra returned to Israel, he sanctified it once again - see Insights to Megilah 10a and to Temurah 21a.
11) [line 21] MA'ASER DAGAN
See Background to Zevachim 45:11.
12a) [line 22] BASAR LAMED AZLINAN - we follow that thing to which the law is taught. (There is a dispute in cases in which we wish to extend a law that is stated explicitly in a non-sacrificial context, through a two-stage Hekesh, to a sacrificial context. One opinion maintains that the nature of the subject which is the source of the law determines whether we apply the restriction unique to Kodshim. Another opinion maintains that the nature of the subject to which we seek to extend the law is the determining factor.)
b) [line 23] BASAR MELAMED AZLINAN - we follow that which teaches the law. (See previous entry.)
13) [line 25] BAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI - foolish Babylonians
14) [line 26] AMATUL D'YASVEI B'AR'A CHASHOCHA - because they live in a dark land
15) [line 28] B'SHA'AS SILUK MASA'OS - at the time of the moving of the camp of Bnei Yisrael when they would commence their journeys
16) [line 28] V'ZAVIM (ZAV)
(a) A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Bava Kama 25:6) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.
(b) A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven ways are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. being sick; 6. (a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.); 7. having unclean thoughts.
(c) A Zav must count seven "clean" days (Shiv'ah Nekiyim) in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(e) In the case of three emissions, however, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.).
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