[13a - 40 lines; 13b - 43 lines]
1)[line 5]לחדד בה תלמידיוL'CHADED BAH TALMIDAV- to sharpen his students [a) by presenting them with an opportunity to ask a good question; b) by acclimating them to the way of thinking necessary to originate a Kal va'Chomer]
2)[line 6]שחטן... קבל והלך וזרקSHE'SHECHATAN... KIBEL V'HALACH V'ZARAK (ARBA AVODOS)
The offering of an animal designated as a Korban consists of four primary actions, termed Avodos. These are:
1.SHECHITAH - slaughtering the animal
2.KABALAS HA'DAM - collecting the lifeblood of the Korban in a vessel
3.HOLACHAH - bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach
4.ZERIKAH - dashing the blood upon the Mizbe'ach.
3)[line 9]לשם פסח ולשם שלמיםL'SHEM PESACH UL'SHEM SHELAMIM- [if one slaughtered the Korban first] with intent that it was a Korban Pesach and [then] with intent that it was a Korban Shelamim
4)[line 15]שוחט בצד המזבח וזורקSHOCHET B'TZAD HA'MIZBE'ACH V'ZOREK- [for he may] slaughter it alongside the Mizbe'ach and dash [its blood without moving at all]. The Rabanan maintain that one must make sure to carry the blood some distance between the Kabalah and the Zerikah.
5)[line 16]המהלך במקום שהוא צריך להלך מחשבה פוסלתHA'MEHALECH B'MAKOM SHE'HU TZARICH L'HALECH, MACHSHAVAH POSELES...- if one walks where he must walk, then an invalidating thought invalidates [the Korban]... The Gemara (15b) explains the precise meaning of this phrase.
6)[line 19]"[ושחט את-בן הבקר, לפני ה';] והקריבו בני אהרן הכהנים, את-הדם, וזרקו את-הדם על-המזבח סביב, אשר-פתח אהל מועד""[V'SHACHAT ES BEN HA'BAKAR LIFNEI HASH-M;] V'HIKRIVU BNEI AHARON HA'KOHANIM ES HA'DAM V'ZARKU ES HA'DAM AL HA'MIZBE'ACH SAVIV ASHER PESACH OHEL MO'ED"- "[And he shall slaughter the young calf before HaSh-m,] and the sons of Aharon shall bring the blood close, and they shall dash the blood all around the Mizbe'ach that is next to the entrance of the Ohel Mo'ed" (Vayikra 1:5). This verse is written regarding the offering of a Korban Olah.
7)[line 19]זו קבלת הדםZO KABALAS HA'DAM- this refers to receiving the blood (see above, entry #2) [as the verse describes regarding the Olah offered at Har Sinai (Shemos 24:6). Although it might seem more reasonable to interpret these words to be referring to Holachah (see ibid.), our Gemara prefers to assume that they refer to that which is always necessary. This excludes Holachah, which is redundant when the Korban is slaughtered aside the Mizbe'ach. From that which the verse refers to Kabalah with a term that evokes Holachah we learn that whatever is required of Kabalah applies to Holachah (whenever it is necessary) as well.
8)[line 22]בכלי שרתBI'CHLEI SHARES (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)
(a)A Kohen must wear four white linen garments while performing the Avodah (Divine Service). These garments are termed Bigdei Lavan (white vestments). The Bigdei Kehunah consist of the Kutones (tunic; long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Migba'as (turban).
(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. Because each of these is either formed of gold or contains golden thread, they are referred to as the Bigdei Zahav (golden vestments). These are the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead), Efod (apron), Choshen (breastplate), and Me'il (robe) (Shemos 28).
(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS to Yoma 25a DH Notel).
(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a verse (Shemos 29:9) that they have are Halachically considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.
(e)Our Gemara teaches that Kohanim must wear the Bigdei Kehunah while receiving the blood of a Korban (RASHI and TOSFOS et. al.; see RABEINU HILLEL to the TORAS KOHANIM, who explains that Klei Shares here refers to the vessels within which the Kohanim receive the blood).
9)[line 22]אמר רבי עקיבאAMAR REBBI AKIVA ...- Although Rebbi Akiva agrees with the ruling expressed by the Tana Kama, he does not agree that it can be derived from the words "Bnei Aharon ha'Kohanim." He therefore must find an alternate source for the ruling.
10)[line 23]"אלה, שמות בני אהרן, הכהנים, המשחים--אשר-מלא ידם, לכהן""ELEH SHEMOS BNEI AHARON HA'KOHANIM HA'MESHUCHIM, ASHER MILEI YADAM L'CHAHEN"- "These are the names of the anointed sons of Aharon the Kohanim who filled their hands to perform the Divine Service" (Bamidbar 3:3). The expression to "fill their hands" refers to that which they wore Bigdei Kehunah (see, for example, Vayikra 21:10).
11)[line 25]אקפח את בניי אם לא שמעתי (להבחין) הפרש בין קבלה לזריקה, ואין לי לפרש!AKAPE'ACH ES BANAI IM LO SHAMA'TI (L'HAVCHIN) HEFRESH BEIN KABALAH L'ZERIKAH, V'EIN LI L'FARESH!- May I bury my sons if I have not heard that there is a distinction between receiving the blood and dashing it, but I cannot explain what it is! [How is it then that you maintain that they share Halachic qualities?]
12)[line 27]לא עשה בה מחשבה כמעשהLO ASAH BO MACHSHAVAH K'MA'ASEH- an invalidating thought [such as the intention to eat or offer it beyond the time within which it must be eaten or offered (Pigul), or she'Lo Lishmo] does not effect [the Korban while it is performed] as an [invalidating] action would
13)[line 28]בחוץB'CHUTZ - outside [of the Beis Ha'Mikdash] (SHECHUTEI CHUTZ)
(a)All sanctified animals fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach must be offered as Korbanos (Vayikra 17:1-7). Aside from this positive Mitzvah, one is prohibited from slaughtering such animals outside of the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). Animals slaughtered outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash are termed "Shechutei Chutz." One who willfully ignores this prohibition is liable to receive Kares (see next entry).
(b)In our Gemara, Rebbi Akiva teaches that this prohibition also applies to dashing the blood of a Korban, but not to receiving its blood (see 107a).
14)[line 28]כרתKARES (KARES / MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM)
(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through Divinely administered justice.
(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:
1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)
4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).
(d)As stated in the Mishnah at the beginning of Kerisus, there are 36 sins listed in the Torah for which one receives Kares: the sixteen forbidden conjugal relations listed in the Torah (Vayikra 18); one who curses G-d; an idol worshipper; one who worships Molech (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:5); one who practices Ov (see Background to Pesachim 113:62); one who desecrates Shabbos; one who ate Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while in a state of Tum'ah; one who consumed blood, Nosar (see Background to Pesachim 120:9), or Pigul (see Background to 6:60); one who slaughters or offers a sacrifice outside of the Mikdash; one who eats Chametz on Pesach; one who eats or performs Melachah on Yom Kipur; one who compounds Shemen ha'Mishchah (the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty) or the Ketores (see Background to 11:25) for his own use; one who anoints himself with Shemen ha'Mishchah; one who neglects to give himself a Bris Milah; and one who neglects to offer a Korban Pesach.
15)[line 28]פסוליןPESULIN- those invalid [to perform the Avodah (i.e., a non-Kohen or a Kohen who is Tamei)]
16)[line 28]אין חייבין עליוEIN CHAYAVIN ALAV- they are not liable [to receive Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see above, entry #14) since it is not an Avodah Tamah ("finished" service; i.e., one that requires no other component in order to be complete - see Yoma 24a)]
17)[line 29]העבודה (את) [אם / שלא] הטית ימין ושמאל!HA'AVODAH (ES) [IM / SHE'LO] HITISA YAMIN U'SEMOL!- [I hereby swear by] the service [of the Beis ha'Mikdash] [if you have / that you have not] leaned right or left [in your attempt to recreate the teaching that I forgot]! (Girsa revised by SHITAH MEKUBETZES / MESORES HA'SHAS)
18)[line 30]אתה דורש ומסכים לשמועהATAH DORESH U'MASKIM L'SHEMU'AH- you expound and arrive at a conclusion that concurs with my teaching [that I now remember after having been reminded of it]
19a)[line 32]כאן במחשבת פיגולKAN B'MACHSHEVES PIGUL- here [in the Beraisa where an invalidating thought does not affect the Korban, it is discussing a case in] which he had a thought of Pigul (see below, entry #21)
b)[line 32]כאן במחשבת שלא לשמהKAN B'MACHSHEVES SHE'LO LISHMAH- here [in our Mishnah where an invalidating thought does affect the Korban, it is discussing a case in] which he thought that the Korban was a different sacrifice
20)[line 34]בזריקה בלבדB'ZERIKAH BILVAD- [when it takes place] at [the time of] Zerikah (see above, entry #2) only (since this is implied by the verse, as the Beraisa goes on to explain)
21)[line 35]"ואם האכל יאכל מבשר-זבח שלמיו ביום השלישי, לא ירצה, המקריב אתו לא יחשב לו, פגול יהיה...""V'IM HE'ACHOL YE'ACHEL MI'BESAR ZEVACH SHELAMAV BA'YOM HA'SHELISHI LO YE'RATZEH; HA'MAKRIV OSO LO YECHASHEV LO; PIGUL YIHEYEH..." - "And if he shall eat from the meat of his Shelamim sacrifices on the third day it shall not be desirable; it shall not count for he who offered it; it shall be Pigul (a Korban disqualified by thought)..." (Vayikra 7:18) (PIGUL)
(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it becomes disqualified and may not be eaten (Vayikra 7:18). The verse refers to such a sacrifice as "Pigul", which means "putrid" or "rejected."
(b)One who intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul is liable to receive Kares (see above, entry #14); if he eats it unintentionally then he must offer a Korban Chatas.
(c)A Korban Shelamim must be eaten within two days of its offering. Although the verse cited by our Gemara seems to be discussing one who eats a Korban Shelamim on the third day, it is actually referring to one who planned on doing so (see 29a).
22)[line 36]בדברים המביאין לידי אכילהB'DEVARIM HA'MEVI'IN L'YEDEI ACHILAH- about [disqualifying thoughts that take place during] those actions that bring [a Korban] to [the stage at which it may] be eaten (i.e., the four primary components of a sacrificial offering; see above, entry #2)]
23)[line 36]שפיכת שירייםSHEFICHAS SHIRAYIM- pouring the remainder [of the blood after the Zerikah upon the base of the outer Mizbe'ach]
24)[line 37]הקטרת אימוריןHAKTARAS EIMURIN - burning the fats or limbs of a Korban on the Mizbe'ach (HEKTER CHALAVIM V'EVARIM)
(a)All parts of a Korban burned upon the Mizbe'ach are collectively termed "Eimurim." These include limbs (Evarim) and certain fats (Chalavim). Which limbs must be burned upon the Mizbe'ach depends upon the type of Korban offered. The fats burned include the layer of fat covering the stomachs as well as all other fat attached to the stomachs, the two kidneys, the fat on the kidneys, and the Yoseres ha'Kaved, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a certain lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON), and in the case of a sheep, the fat tail (Vayikra 3).
(b)All of the service (Avodah) that takes place in the Beis ha'Mikdash must be performed during the day. This includes the slaughter of the Korban and all of the subsequent Avodos up to and including the application or dashing of its blood upon the Mizbe'ach. If there was no time to burn its Chalavim and Pedarim (certain fats) or Evarim (limbs) during the day, however, then they may be placed on the fire atop the Mizbe'ach for the entire following night. As long as the Zerikas ha'Dam (see above, entry #2) was performed before nightfall, then the Korban is kosher.
25)[line 37]"... (ביום השלישי לא ירצה) המקריב אותו לא יחשב...""... (BA'YOM HA'SHELISHI LO YE'RATZEH) HA'MAKRIV OSO LO YECHASHEV..." (Vayikra 7:18)- see above, entry #21. This phrase refers to Zerikah because a) "Ritzuy" - the acceptance of a Korban by HaSh-m - is dependent upon the Zerikah (RASHI DH Lo Yeratzeh); b) the "Hakravah" - the main offering of a Korban - finishes with the Zerikah (RASHI DH Ela b'Zerikah).
26)[line 38]להקיש אליהL'HAKISH ELEHA (HEKESH)
(a)One of the methods employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is "Hekesh." A Hekesh entails comparing two subjects that are mentioned together in one verse or neighboring verses.
(b)A Hekesh is a powerful way of determining Halachah. When two subjects are compared through a Hekesh, all possible parallels are drawn between them, unless a different Derashah teaches us otherwise ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechetzah"). Additionally, Pirchos (logical differences) that would impede a Kal va'Chomer (see Background to Bava Kama 24:43) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Bava Kama 40:9a) do not stand in the way of learning one subject from another through a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").
27)[line 39]מעכבת כפרהME'AKEVES KAPARAH- it prevents the atonement [brought about through the offering of the sacrifice from taking effect unless it is properly performed]
28a)[line 1]הא דאמר, "הריני [שוחט] ע"מ לקבל (דמה) [דמו] למחר"HA D'AMAR, "HAREINI [SHOCHET] AL MENAS L'KABEL (DAMAH) [DAMO] L'MACHAR"- that [which an invalidating thought of Pigul during Kabalas ha'Dam does not affect the Korban is in a case in which] he said, "I hereby slaughter [this Korban] with intent to receive its blood tomorrow [since although the thought took place during one of the main four Avodos, it was regarding neither human consumption nor consumption of the Mizbe'ach]
b)[line 2]הא דאמר, "הריני מקבל דמה על מנת לשפוך שירים למחר"HA D'AMAR, "HAREINI MEKABEL DAMAH AL MENAS LI'SHPOCH SHIRAYIM L'MACHAR"- that [which an invalidating thought of Pigul during Kabalas ha'Dam does affect the Korban is in a case in which] he said, "I hereby receive the blood of this [Korban] with intent to pour the remainder [of its blood] tomorrow [since the thought took place during one of the main four Avodos and was regarding consumption of the Mizbe'ach]
29a)[line 9]אכילת אדםACHILAS ADAM- human consumption (such as of meat of a Korban)
b)[line 10]אכילת מזבחACHILAS MIZBE'ACH- consumption of the Mizbe'ach (such as of blood dashed upon it or parts of a Korban burned upon it)
30a)[line 10]הא דאמר, "הריני זורק על מנת לשפוך שירים למחר"HA D'AMAR, "HAREINI ZOREK AL MENAS LI'SHPOCH SHIRAYIM L'MACHAR"- that [which an invalidating thought of Pigul during Shefichas Shirayim does affect the Korban is in a case in which] he said, "I hereby dash the blood of this [Korban] with intent to pour the remainder [of its blood] tomorrow [since the thought took place during one of the main four Avodos and was regarding consumption of the Mizbe'ach]
b)[line 12]הא דאמר, "הריני שופך שירים על מנת להקטיר אימורין למחר"HA D'AMAR, "HAREINI SHOFECH SHIRAYIM AL MENAS L'HAKTIR EIMURIM L'MACHAR"- that [which an invalidating thought of Pigul during Shefichas Shirayim does not affect the Korban is in a case in which] he said, "I hereby pour the remainder [of the blood of this Korban] with intent to burn its innards tomorrow [since the thought did not take place during one of the main four Avodos]
31)[line 14]טבילת אצבע מפגלת בחטאת (פנימית)TEVILAS ETZBA MEFAGELES B'CHATAS (PENIMIS)- a thought of Pigul [that a Kohen has while] dipping his [right index] finger [into the blood of a Korban Chatas (whose blood is brought into the Heichal (i.e., a Par Kohen Mashi'ach or Par He'elem Davar; see Background to Sanhedrin 4:39:b))] invalidates the Korban
32)[line 15]אילפאILFA- the name of an Amora
33)[line 17]אין טבילת אצבע מפגלת בהןEIN TEVILAS ETZBA MEFAGELES BA'HEN- thoughts of Pigul that occur during the dipping of the finger do not invalidate the Korban [since the Kohen does not dip his finger into the blood of a Korban Shelamim at all]
34)[line 20]אין מוציא מידי פיגולEIN MOTZI MI'YEDEI PIGUL (K'HARTZA'AS KASHER KEN HARTZA'AS PASUL)
(a)A Korban attains the status of Pigul (see above, entry #21) only if he who offered it had the invalidating thoughts during one of the four primary Avodos of the Korban (see above, entry #2). Furthermore, the same way that the Korban would not have been "offered" until after the Zerikah, the status of Pigul does not take effect until after the Zerikah. Should one consume a k'Zayis of the Korban prior to that stage, he will not receive Kares.
(b)This is all true, however, only if the four Avodos are otherwise performed properly. If he who offered the Korban had a different disqualifying intention in mind at any point, then this other thought "saves" the Korban from Pigul. Although the Korban is disqualified, one who consumes a k'Zayis will not receive Kares. The principle at work is that Pigul takes effect only if the Korban would have otherwise been valid, and only when the Korban would have otherwise been valid.
(c)A Korban Shelamim offered as a different Korban remains valid (Mishnah, 2a). Therefore, such a thought cannot save a Korban Shelamim from becoming Pigul, since it is not disqualifying.
35)[line 22]מרבויא דקראי קאתיאME'RIBUYA D'KERA'EI KA'ASYA- [that which a Chatas is affected by Pigul -- and saved from Pigul when other invalidating thoughts are present --] is derived from seemingly extraneous verses [and not from the verse written regarding a Korban Shelamim]
36)[line 23]עליהALIYAH- an upper story
37)[line 24]תהי בהTAHI BAH- he delved into it in order to understand it
38)[line 27]איןIN- indeed
39)[line 28]חוץ למקומוCHUTZ LI'MEKOMO- [intent to eat or offer part of a Korban] outside of the place within which it must be consumed or offered
40)[line 30]מצדה תבראMI'TZIDAH TAVRA- lit. that which can break it lies at its side; i.e., there is an obvious rejoinder
41a)[line 32]דבר הפוסל בהןDAVAR HAL'POSEL BA'HEN- that which disqualifies [Korbenos Shelamim (i.e., thoughts of Chutz li'Mekomo)]
b)[line 33]דבר המעכב בהןDAVAR HA'ME'AKEV BA'HEN- that which prevents [the atonement of Korbenos Shelamim (i.e., the four primary Avodos)]
42)[line 34]אף אנן נמי תנינאAF ANAN NAMI TENINA- I have also learned [that which thoughts of Pigul that a Kohen has while dipping his finger into the blood of a Chatas render the Korban invalid] in a Mishnah
43)[line 35]כל הקומץ, ונותן בכלי, והמוליך, והמקטירKOL HA'KOMETZ, V'NOSEN B'CHELI, VEHA'MOLICH, VEHA'MAKTIR (MINCHAS YACHID)
(a)Korbenos Minchah are offerings that contain flour.
(b)In all private Menachos, a Kometz of the offering is removed. A Kometz is defined as that which can be held between the middle three fingers and the palm. The Kohen places his hand in the mixture and removes one handful. He then wipes away the excess extending beyond his three middle fingers using his thumb and pinky until only the Kometz remains. The Kometz is placed in a Kli Shares (sanctified vessel) and then burned on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach).
(c)Kemitzah is only performed when a Minchah is brought by a non-Kohen. A Minchah offered by a Kohen is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Kometz of Levonah (frankincense or oliban, a gum resin that comes from trees found in present-day Arabia and India) is placed on top of most Menachos and is later burned upon the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(e)The remainder of the Minchah (Sheyarei ha'Minchah) is eaten by male Kohanim in the Azarah.
(f)The Mishnah cited by our Gemara states that a thought of Pigul that takes place during separation of the Kometz, while it is placed into a Kli Shares, while it is being brought to the Mizbe'ach, or while it is burned upon the Mizbe'ach invalidates the entire Minchah offering.
44)[line 36]קומץ היינו שוחטKOMETZ HAINU SHOCHET- removing the Kemitzah from a Korban Minchah is the equivalent of slaughtering an animal [since they both consist of removing that (blood/Kemitzah) which will permit others to consume the remainder, and that which Pigul affects it can therefore be derived from an animal sacrifice]
45)[line 37]איהו קא שקיל ורמיIHU KA SHAKIL V'RAMI- [the Kohen] must actively remove it and place it [in a Kli Shares]
46)[line 38]לא סגי דלא יהיבLO SAGI D'LO YAHIV- lit. it is not enough for him not to place it; i.e., it is an integral part of the service of a Minchah
47)[line 41]לימא כתנאיLEIMA K'TANA'EI- let us suggest that [whether dipping a finger into the blood of a Chatas is part of Holachah or not] is the subject of a Tana'ic disagreement
48)[line 42]לא מתפגלתLO MISPAGELES- the Korban is not rendered Pigul if the subject of the thought was to dip his finger into the blood beyond the proper time
49a)[last line]הא רבנןHA RABANAN- this [Beraisa which maintains that an invalidating thought during Tevilas Etzba renders the Korban Pigul expresses the opinion of] the Rabanan [in our Mishnah, who rule that a Machsheves Pigul during Holachah affects the Korban]
b)[last line]הא רבי שמעוןHA REBBI SHIMON- this [Beraisa which maintains that an invalidating thought during Tevilas Etzba does not render the Korban Pigul expresses the opinion of] Rebbi Shimon [in our Mishnah, who rules that a Machsheves Pigul during Holachah does not affect the Korban since it is not always necessary]
50)[last line]מאי איריאMAI IRYA...?- why specify...?