ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah rules that if a Sa'ah of Terumah Temei'ah fell into less than a hundred Sa'ah of ...
1. ... Chulin, or into ...
2. ... Ma'aser Rishon, Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh ...
(b) ... irrespective of whether it is Tamei or Tahor - it must be left to rot.
(c) The Tana prefers it to be left to rot rather than to be burned (which is what the Torah prescribes for Terumah Temei'ah) - for fear that whilst he is burning it, he will eat it (since people tend to take the Isur Dimu'a [a mixture of Terumah and Chulin] lightly).
(a) If, on the other hand, it was a Sa'ah of Terumah Tehorah that fell into less than a hundred Sa'ah of ...
1. ... Chulin - it must be sold to the Kohanim as Terumah, deducting the one Sa'ah from the price.
2. ... Ma'aser Rishon - he should request from a Levi to switch his own Chulin for this batch, and for him to then designate one Sa'ah out of this batch, Terumas Ma'aser on the Ma'aser Rishon that the Levi receives.
3. ... Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh - it must first be redeemed, before selling it to a Kohen (in the way that we just explained).
(b) If the Chulin into which the Terumah fell was Tamei, the Kohen must be careful to prepare it in a way that it does not come into contact with water (dry or in as pop-corn). He can however, eat it in the form of ...
1. ... a cake - if it is kneaded with fruit-juice instead of water.
2. ... bread (as if the Chulin was Tahor) - if he kneads less than a k'Beitzah (which is not subject to Tum'ah) at a time.
(c) In a case where the Terumah fell into Ma'aser Rishon that was Tamei, the owner must also remember - to separate Terumas Ma'aser, which he is then permitted to sell to a Kohen,
(d) The Tana does not declare the mixture forbidden, to be left to rot, like he did in the Reisha (when Terumah Temei'ah fell into Chulin) - because whereas in the Reisha, the entire batch is forbidden because it might be Terumah Temei'ah, here it is forbidden because it might be Terumah Tehorah.
(a) A Sa'ah of Terumah Temei'ah that fell into a hundred Sa'in of Terumah Tehorah - does become Batel.
(b) The Tamei Terumah not render the rest Tamei - because it is speaking when the hundred Sa'in had not yet become Huchshar Lekabel Tum'ah.
(c) According to Rebbi Eliezer, the Sa'ah that one removes must be burned (see Tiferes Yisrael) - because we assume that the Sa'ah that was removed is the Sa'ah that fell in (which was Tamei).
(a) The Chachamim rule that ...
1. ... the Sa'ah that the Kohen may eat the Sa'ah that is removed under the same stringent conditions as the Sa'ah of Terumah Tehorah in the previous Mishnah (because they do not assume that the Sa'ah that is removed is the one that fell in). (See Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger DH 'k'Beitzah', DH 'Ta'aleh' and Tosfos Yom-Tom and Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger DH 'K'dei').
2. ... the remaining hundred Sa'in may be eaten in whatever way the owner pleases.
(b) The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.
(a) The Mishnah rules in a case where a Sa'ah of Tahor Terumah fell into a hundred Sa'in of Tamei Chulin - that the Kohen may eat the Sa'ah that is removed, under the same stringent conditions as in the previous Mishnah ...
(b) ... even according to Rebbi Eliezer - who concedes that the Terumah may be eaten (seeing as the Terumah that fell into the Chulin was Tahor).
(a) According to Beis Shamai, one Sa'ah of Tamei Terumah that falls into a hundred Sa'ah of Tahor Terumah does not become Batel. Beis Beis Hillel - hold that it does.
(b) Beis Hillel's initial reasoning is based on a 'Mah Matzinu' - that if Tahor Terumah can become Batel so and permitted to Zarim, why should Tamei Terumah not become Batel and permitted to Zarim?
(c) Beis ...
1. ... Shamai countered that argument - by drawing a distinction between Chulin (being Mevatel Terumah) which are 'lenient' (permitted to everyone) and Terumah (Tehorah being Mevatel Terumah Temei'ah) which is 'strict' (forbidden to Zarim).
2. ... Hillel finally convinced Beis Shamai that it does become Batel with a 'Kal-va'Chomer' - that if Tahor Terumah (which carries a Chiyuv Misa for the Zar who eats it) can become Batel, how much more so Tamei Terumah (for which a Kohen who eats it transgresses only an Asei).
(a) After Beis Shamai retracted, Rebbi Eliezer ruled that should such a case occur, the Kohen is obligated to take out one hundredth - and burn it (as we learned earlier).
(b) The Chachamim maintain - that the Sa'ah is completely Batel, and there is nothing more to do (as Rebbi Yehoshua taught earlier).
(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer, if the Sa'ah of Terumah which fell into a hundred Sa'ah of Chulin, and which the owner duly removed, fell into less than a hundred Sa'ah of Chulin, it becomes Asur (Dimu'a) - because (based on what he said earlier 'the Sa'ah that fell in is the Sa'ah that the owner removed) the entire Sa'ah is considered Terumah.
(b) The Chachamim (from the School of Beis Shamai) on the other hand, maintain - that the Sa'ah which the owner removed is considered ninety- nine percent Chulin and one percent Terumah, and is therefore even Batel in one Sa'ah.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer rules that if a Sa'ah of Terumah fell into less than a hundred Sa'ah of Chulin, and some of the Dimu'a (a Sa'ah, say) then fell into another batch of Chulin - the Sa'ah requires a hundred Sa'ah to render it Batel (like he said in the previous Mishnah).
(b) The Chachamim ...
1. ... too, repeat their ruling in the previous Mishnah (see Tiferes Yisrael), namely, that the second batch of Chulin contains one hundred times as much as fraction of Terumah contained in the fruit that fell into it (see Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger).
2. ... issue the same ruling with regard to a dough of Chulin that became Chametz by means of yeast of Terumah - inasmuch as the second dough will only become Dimu'a if the fraction of Terumah contained in the dough that fell into it is sufficient to cause the second dough to become Chametz.
(c) And they say the same with regard to drawn water that falls into a Mikveh. Three Lugin of drawn water will only invalidate the Mikveh into which it falls will invalidate it - only if the Mikveh does not yet contain forty Sa'ah of Kasher water.
(d) Anything up to twenty Sa'ah (exclusively) of drawn water will not invalidate the Mikveh if it is added by means of Hamshachah (whereby it flows along the ground before entering the Mikveh).
(a) The Mishnah discusses a case where, after removing the Sa'ah of Terumah that fell into a hundred Sa'in of Chulin, another one fell in. Before that happened however - the owner removed one Sa'ah (as the Halachah requires).
(b) The Tana then rules - that however many Sa'in subsequently fall in, the batch remains Mutar to a Zar (provided the owner removed one Sa'ah each time), until the batch contains a majority of Terumah (i.e. until fifty-one bundles of Terumah each comprising one Sa'ah have fallen in (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).
(a) In a case where the second Sa'ah fell in before the owner had a chance to remove the first Sa'ah, the Tana rules - that the batch becomes Asur as if the two Sa'in had fallen in simultaneously.
(b) Rebbi Shimon disagrees with the Tana Kama - based on the S'vara 'Kol ha'Omed Lizarek ke'Zaruk Dami' (likewise here, since the first Sa'ah stood to be removed, it is considered as if it was removed.
(c) Consequently - as long as the owner is unaware that the first Sa'ah fell in, Rebbi Shimon will concede that it is Asur.
(d) The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.
(a) In a case where a Sa'ah of Terumah fell into a hundred Sa'in of Chulin, and after the owner ground them (see Tosfos Yom-Tov [in one go]), there are less than a hundred and one Sa'ah, the Mishnah rules that the flour is nevertheless permitted to a Zar - because if the Chulin diminished, so did the Terumah.
(b) In a case where the Sa'ah fell into less that hundred Sa'in and after grinding, the owner discovers that there are now a hundred and one Sa'in - the mixture remains Asur, because here too, the Terumah increased just as the Chulin did.
(c) The mixture will be permitted - if the Chulin are of a better quality than the Terumah (see Tosfos Yom-Tov and Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger, as to why this clause is omitted from the Reisha).
(d) It is even permitted to grind the mixture Lechatchilah (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).
(a) Finally, the Tana rules that in a case where, after a Sa'ah of Terumah fell into less than a hundred Sa'in of Chulin, a bundle of Chulin 'falls in', bringing the total of Chulin to a hundred and one - it is permitted provided the Chulin fell in inadvertently, but Asur if the owner threw it in on purpose ...
(b) ... because the Chachamim penalized the owner for being Mevatel an Isur Lechatchilah (and this extends to all Isurim min ha'Torah).
Hadran Alach 'Sa'ah'