ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Tana discusses bringing manure to the trash-heap in the Sh'mitah - to pile it up in order to fertilize it in the eighth year.
(b) R. Meir permits it - from the time the sinners have finished tilling the land (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) This conforms with the Lashon 'Ovrei Aveirah'. The same Din will apply according to those who have the text 'Ovdei Avodah' - which has the same connotations.
(a) According to R. Yehudah, it is from the time the Masuk - (the manure) dries.
(b) It is called by that name - because it causes the fruit to become sweet (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The Yerushalmi explains 'mi'she'Yivash ha'Masuk' as - from the time rain-water that fills the cracks in the valleys dries (a process that takes a long time).
(a) R. Yossi gives the starting time as 'mi'she'Yikshor' - by which he means when the manure begins to dry (at which point it becomes hard and knotty) ...
(b) ... which is only slightly earlier than the time given by R. Yehudah.
(a) With reference to the previous Mishnah, the Tana Kama permits three piles of manure per Beis-Sa'ah, and he requires ten 'Mashpeilos' - (large containers meant for transporting manure) per pile ...
(b) ... specifically ten, says the Tiferes Yisrael, since less gives the impression that he is fertilizing his field.
(c) Each container contains a Lesech - (the equivalent of fifteen Sa'ah [half a Sa'ah], which is the maximum weight carried by a donkey.
(d) The Tana Kama permits adding per Beis Sa'ah more than ...
1. ... ten containers, but not more than ...
2. ... three piles.
(a) R. Shimon - permits even adding more than three piles per Beis Sa'ah.
(b) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Tana Kama of this Mishnah permits more than three piles of manure (see also Tiferes Yisrael & Tos. Yom-Tov). The author of this Mishnah is - R. Shimon, who is coming to teach us - that even though there are less than ten containers in each pile, it is permitted, seeing as the manure is not spread out ...
(b) ... and we are not concerned about Mar'is ha'Ayin (that people will assume that he is fertilizing his field).
(c) The Chachamim - forbid it, unless the manure is either in a ditch or on a ridge (both of which need to measure three Tefachim in height ; see also Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(a) When the Tana Kama permits making his manure 'an Otzar', he means - that one is allowed to combine the three piles discussed above into one large pile and even to add to that.
(b) We might have thought - that just as it is forbidden to add to three piles per Beis Sa'ah, so too is it forbidden to make a pile that is larger than the three piles permitted by the Tana.
(c) R. Meir concedes that it is permitted - provided the pile is at least three Tefachim deep or three Tefachim high.
(d) The Yerushalmi confine R. Meir's ruling to the concession of adding to the pile. He agrees however, that one is permitted to combine the three piles S'tam - because if that amount of manure is permitted when it is in three piles, Kal-va'Chomer in one pile.
(a) If initially, there is insufficient manure to take out - the Mishnah permits one to take out what he has, and to add to it until he has complemented the full Shi'ur (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) R. Elazar ben Azaryah requires one of three conditions. One is that it is placed in a three Tefachim deep ditch. The ...
1. ... second - that it is placed on a ledge three Tefachim high, and the ...
2. ... third - that it is placed on a rock (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The reason for these conditions is - to avoid Mar'is ha'Ayin (conveying the impression that one is fertilizing one's field).
(a) The Mishnah now discusses someone who is 'Medayer' his field - (i.e. assuming that he has nowhere else for his animals to graze, he lets them graze in his field ...
(b) ... even though they will automatically leave their droppings.
(c) It is nevertheless permitted - since he does not have the intention of fertilizing his field.
(a) The Tana Kama initially permits making a 'Sohar' - (like 'Sochar' [see Tos. Yom-Tov]) a fence that surrounds the area where the sheep are grazing measuring two Beis Sa'ah.
(b) Then, when they have devoured all the grass in that area - he simply moves three of the walls of the fence to the far side of the fourth wall, creating another area of two Beis-Sa'ah, for the sheep to graze.
(c) The Tana Kama is coming to teach us - that one is allowed to graze his sheep in this way at the rate of four Beis-Sa'ah at a time (but no more), before collecting the manure (as we shall soon see).
(d) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel is more lenient than the Tana Kama - permitting eight Beis-Sa'ah at a time (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(e) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) In a case where the entire field measures four Beis Sa'ah - the Tana Kama requires leaving a bit of the field 'un-grazed' ...
(b) ... because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (people should not think that he deliberately fertilized the field).
(c) The last stage in the process is - collecting the manure from the four Beis-Sa'ah and forming piles (three per Beis-Sa'ah, as we learned earlier).
(a) The Tana forbids digging a new mine (of stones for building) in one's field in the Sh'mitah - because people will suspect him of preparing the field for seeding ...
(b) ... unless three rows of stones 'Murbiyos' [see Tos. Yom-Tov] are already uncovered before the Sh'mitah begins.
(c) The minimum measurement of each row is - three cubic Amos, and ...
(d) ... the minimum ...
1. ... number of stones in each row - three.
2. ... number of stones in total - nine, each measuring ...
3. ... one Amah square, and three tall.
(a) To permit dismantling a stone-wall in a field and removing the stones during the Sh'mitah - it must contain a minimum of ten large stones (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) A large stone in this regard is - one that requires two people to carry it.
(c) This permits the owner to take even the small stones (see Tos. Yom-Tov) - seeing as it is obvious that his objective is to take the stones for building and not to prepare the field for seeding.
(d) Less than that (see Tos. Yom-Tov), the Tana describes as a mine - in which case he is obligated to leave at least a Tefach of stones protruding from the ground, dismantling it.
(a) The Din will differ with regard to dismantling the wall in one's neighbor's field in the Sh'mitah - inasmuch as there are no restrictions as to how much he is permitted to take ...
(b) ... seeing as no-one will suspect him of taking the stones with the intention of preparing it for seeding.
(c) The Tana permit completely dismantling the wall even in one's own field - provided he began before the Sh'mitah began.
(a) To permit removing all the stones - the plow needs to move two large stones, each requiring two men to carry it.
(b) The same will apply - even if the plow has not yet actually moved the stones, only they are lying in its path and obstruct its free passage.
(c) The Tana also permits removing all the stones - if the two stones were initially covered and became uncovered by the plow.
(a) The Tana permits clearing the stones from one's field (see Tos. Yom-Tov & commentaries) - provided one leaves the stones that are actually touching the ground.
(b) The same ruling applies to 'Gargar shel Tzeroros' and to a 'Gal shel Avanim' - (a pile [see Tos. Yom-Tov] of small stones and one of large stones, respectively).
(c) One is permitted to clear all the stones however - if there are rocks or even straw underneath them.
(d) The reason for all these concessions is - because it is then obvious that the owner is not removing the stones in order to prepare it for plowing.
(a) They would build steps leading down to the valley (see Tiferes Yisrael) - in order not to slip on the slippery slopes when descending to collect water to water one's fields.
(b) The Mishnah forbids doing so on Erev Shevi''is after the rain-season has terminated - because of mar'is ha'Ayin (since it looks as if he is doing it in order to stock water in order to water his field during the Sh'mitah).
(c) The Tana permits it in the Sh'mitah itself - because then he is obviously stocking the water for Motza'ei Shevi'is.
(a) When building the wall of a dam to prevent the water from escaping - one may not place earth and cement between the stones even in the Sh'mitah-year, in order to strengthen them ...
(b) ... because that conveys the impression that one intends to water his fields.
(c) The Tana does however, permit building a 'Chayitz' (a stone wall without adding earth or cement).
(a) The Mishnah permits taking from the field - any stones that one can reach whilst in the process of building a wall (see Tiferes Yisrael) ...
(b) ... because the wall supports the assumption that he is only taking them to build with (and not to clear his field for plowing).
(a) The Mishnah permits taking Avnei Kaseif (which will be explained shortly) from anywhere, meaning - that one is permitted to carry heavy stones even from one's own field during the Sh'mithah ...
(b) ... because it is understood that he wants them for building (so nobody will suspect him of removing them to prepare his field for plowing).
(c) The Tana also permits a Kablan to take stones (see Tos. Yom-Tov) from anywhere. 'Kablan' refers either to a contractor who, everybody knows, needs the stones for his building projects, or - to an Aris (a share-cropper, who does not own of the field).
(a) According to R. Meir,'Avnei Kaseif' means stones that are too heavy to carry in one hand. R. Yossi - interprets it literally as 'stones that are sufficiently large to carry two or three on one's shoulder (even though they are small enough for them to be carried in one hand).
(b) The Halachah - is like R. Yossi.
(a) When building a wall between one's field and the street, the Mishnah permits one to - dig right down to the level of the rock ...
(b) ... and we are not afraid that - he may change his mind and decide to plant there (see Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(c) ... because people do not to plant immediately next to the street.
(d) Consequently - building the same wall between one's own field and that of one's neighbor is forbidden - because there we are afraid that he may change his mind and decide to plant there.
(a) R. Yehoshua permits piling the earth that one removed to make room for the wall, in the street - provided one subsequently removes it.
(b) R. Akiva - forbids piling the earth in the street, irrespective of whether one intends to remove it or not.
(c) When he adds 'so he shall not rectify it', he means - that likewise, one is not permitted to remove rubble from the street and to place it temporarily at the side of the road ...
(d) ... at any time (not specifically during the Sh'mitah.
(a) According to R. Akiva, the owner takes the ...
1. ... the rubble in the latter case - and empty it straight into the sea or river.
2. ... the earth in the former case - and forms it into three piles (as we learned earlier in the Perek).
(b) The Tana concludes that such is the Din with regard to someone ho digs a Bor, Si'ach and Mea'rah. 'Bor' is a pit ...
1. ... 'Si'ach' - a trench, and ...
2. ... 'Mea'rah' - a cave (a pit that is covered by a roof)).
(c) What he means by that is - that R. Yehoshua and R. Akiva argue over whether somebody who digs any of these (any time during the six years before the Sh'mitah) may temporarily place the earth in the street or not.
(d) According to R. Akiva - he can pile the earth in his own domain.
(e) The Halachah - is like R. Akiva.
Hadran Alach 'Me'eimasi'