ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) Besides planting, the Mishnah also lists - the Isur of retaining.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei ...
1. ... "Pen Tikdash ... " - (which is the acronym of 'Tukad Eish') that Kil'ai ha'Kerem must be burned, and is therefore Asur be'Hana'ah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... "Lo Tizra Karm'cha Kilayim" - that one is only Chayav Malkos for planting two different species together in a vineyard (see Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) For planting Kilayim in one's vineyard, one will receive - two sets of Malkos.
(d) Retaining Kilayim in a vineyard however, is not subject to Malkos - because no act has been performed.
(a) K'lai Zera'im on the other hand - may be eaten (and are certainly not Asur be'Hana'ah
(b) The Tana rules that ...
1. ... everything but wearing is permitted with regard to K'lai Begadim.
2. ... one may rear and retain (see Tos. Yom-Tov) K'lai Beheimah, and that only interbreeding is forbidden.
(c) When the Mishnah forbids interbreeding two animals that are Kilayim - it is referring to actually doing so manually (but not to placing them together in the stable, which is permitted).
(a) When the Tana concludes 'K'lai Beheimah Asurim Zeh ba'Zeh', he means - that one is forbidden to interbreed a mule whose mother is a horse and father, a donkey, with one whose mother is a donkey, and father, a horse.
(b) Others permit it, based on the principle - 'Chosheshin le'Zera ha'Av' (we contend with the seed of the father [see Tos. Yom-Tov], a principle with which our Tana does not agree.
(a) The Yerushalmi concludes that one is forbidden to ride on a mule (which is a cross between a horse and a donkey) - because if one is permitted to wear wool and linen one on top of the other, but not together, then how much more so a mule, which is born from a horse and a donkey, which are forbidden to lead one next to the other (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Asurim Zeh im Zeh', which covers most of the points raised by the Bartenura).
(b) The Yerushalmi, to reconcile this with the Pasuk in ...
1. ... Shmuel (in connection with the sons of David, after killing Amnon) "Vayirk'vu Ish al Pirdo, Vayanusu" - explains that we cannot learn from kings and princes (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... Melachim (in connection with the coronation of Shlomoh) "Vehirkavtem es Shlomoh B'ni al ha'Pirdah asher Li" - explains that this was the mule that Hash-m created during the six days of creation).
(c) We know that it is permitted to ride on a mule (in spite of the Yerushalmi) - by the fact that many sages tend to do so, and nobody objects.
(d) One should nevertheless be careful not to lead two mules together - in case the mother of one of them is a horse and the father, a donkey, and the other one, the reverse (as we explained earlier).
(a) The Mishnah forbids breeding a Beheimah ...
1. ... with a Chayah, a Beheimah ...
2. ... Teme'ah with a Beheimah Tehorah, a Beheimah ...
3. ... Teme'ah with a Beheimah Teme'ah, a Beheimah ...
4. ... Tehorah with Beheimah Tehorah, and ...
5. ... an animal with a bird.
(b) We might have thought that most of the above cases are permitted - since the Torah gives the example of 'Shor' (a Beheimah Tehorah) and 'Chamor' (a Beheimah Teme'ah).
(c) We know that "Shor" and "Chamor" are not exclusive however - from a 'Gezeirah_Shavah' ("Shor" "Shor" from Shabbos [see Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael]).
(d) Besides plowing, it is also forbidden - to allow them to pull a wagon or to lead them with a rope.
(a) We just learned that someone who leads two different species is Chayav Malkos. According to the Tana Kama, the same applies to the person who is sitting on the wagon (see Tiferes Yisrael).
(b) R. Meir disagrees - because the sitting man is not doing anything.
(c) The Tana Kama nevertheless declares him Chayav - because since the animals draw the wagon because of him, it is as if he was leading them.
(d) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah forbids hitching a donkey that one to a wagon to which two horses are already hitched.
(a) One would hitch a horse to the side or to the back of a wagon that is being drawn by two oxen - in order to train it to do likewise.
(b) This is forbidden - because sometimes, the horse instinctively pushes the wagon from behind.
(c) It is likewise forbidden to tie a Luvd'kim - (a large particularly strong donkey from Lud that resembles a camel) to a train of camels.
(a) R. Yehudah permits plowing with two mules - provided both their mothers are either horses or donkeys (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) We might otherwise have forbidden it - on the grounds that the part of the one that is a horse is working together with the part of the other that is a donkey (see Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) But he forbids plowing with two mules, one of whose mother is a horse, and the other one, a donkey.
(d) Assuming that the Chachamim disagree with him (see Tos. Yom-Tov's opening comment), the Halachah - is like R. Yehudah.
(a) The Tana now forbids plowing with two P'rutiyos - (a species of mule which there is no way of knowing whether its mother is a horse or a donkey [see also Tiferes Yisrael]) but permits ha'Ramach.
(b) He forbid plowing with two of them - due to the possibility that the mother of one of them is a horse, and of the other, a donkey.
(c) 'ha'Ramach' are - small fast-running horses that look like donkeys (See Tiferes Yisrael & Mishnah Rishonah).
(d) He does not forbid plowing with them too (like he forbids P'rutiyos) - because they are in fact, a species of horse.
(a) The Tana Kama defines Adnei Sadeh as a Chayah. 'Adnei Chayah' - is a ferocious creature that grows in the field, to which it is attached by a cord. It resembles a human-being, and tears to pieces anything that comes within its reach.
(b) One kills it - by severing its (umbilical) cord with an arrow.
(c) 'Adnei Sadeh' is synonymous with 'Yid'oni' (in Kedoshim). It is also mentioned - in Iyov, where it is referred to as "Avnei ha'Sadeh".
(d) Based on the Pasuk in Chukas (in connection with Tum'as Meis) "ve'Chol Asher Yiga al-P'nei ha'Sadeh", R. Yossi rules that 'Adnei ha'Sadeh' - are Metamei be'Ohel.
(e) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah now discusses 'ha'Kupad' - (a hedgehog) and 'Chuldas ha'Sena'im' - (a bush-weasel) ...
(b) ... both of which the Tana Kama places under the category of 'Chayah'.
(a) Rebbi Yossi, citing Beis Shamai, rules that the carcass of Chuldas ha'Sena'im is Metamei k'Zayis be'Masa - and k'Adashah (the size of a lentil) be'Maga ...
(b) ... because he is not sure whether it is a Chayah or a Sheretz.
(c) If it was definitely ...
1. ... a Chayah - it would be Metamei k'Zayis be'Maga, and be'Masa bi'k'Zayis.
2. ... a Sheretz - it would be Metamei k'Adashah be Maga, but not be'Masa at all.
(d) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Tana Kama defines 'Shor Bar' (or 'Shor ha'Bar') - (a wild ox that lives in the desert) as a species of Beheimah ...
(b) ... in which case - its Cheilev is forbidden, when it is Shechted, its blood does not require covering (see Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Miyn Beheimah' & 'Kelev ... ').
(c) The reasoning behind this ruling is - because, in the Tana Kama's opinion, it is a regular ox that fled to the desert and began to breed there.
(a) R. Yossi disagrees with the Tana Kama - because in his opinion, the Shor Bar is an independent species that originated in the desert.
(b) One cannot determine the status of a Shor Bar by means of the Simanim which Chazal gave to distinguish between a Beheimah and a Chayah - since they apply to all species except to Shor Bar.
(c) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Tana Kama defines a dog as a Chayah. According to R. Meir - it is a Beheimah ...
(b) ... and if Reuven sells or gives all the Chayos in his possession to Shimon, or if he declares them Hekdesh (to Bedek ha'Bayis), his dogs will be included.
(c) The Halachah - is like the Tana Kama.
(a) The Mishnah defines ...
1. ... Chazir - as a Beheimah, but ...
2. ... Arod - (a wild donkey) ...
3. ... an elephant, and ...
4. ... a monkey - as a Chayah.
(b) Based on the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "Lo Sacharosh be'Shor va'Chamor" - the Tana permits Adam to draw a wagon, to plow and to be led together (see Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael) with any of the above-mentioned species.
Hadran Alach 'K'lai ha'Kerem'