[I] GEMARA, RASHI AND TOSFOS
(a) GEMARA - Maseches Yoma follows Shekalim in the Dafyomi cycle, although Rosh ha'Shanah is interjected between the two in the Vilna Shas. The more correct order appears to be that of the Dafyomi cycle, which is the order in which these Masechtos are printed in the Mishnayos, and the order given to them by Rambam (in his introduction to the Perush ha'Mishnah) and other Rishonim. Rosh ha'Shanah's true place is after Beitzah, before Ta'anis. This also conforms to the pattern of larger-Maseches-first which we discussed in our introduction to Maseches Tamid (I:a). Hence, the order is Shekalim (8 Perakim) followed by Yoma (also 8), Sukah (5), Beitzah (5), Rosh Hashanah (4), Ta'anis (4) and so on.
1. The common name of the Maseches, Yoma ('day') appears to be short for Yoma d'Kipurei (the Targum of Yom ha'Kipurim). The Maharsha adds that the name Yoma denotes that Yom Kipur is "the day" -- the unique, holiest day of the year. This idea can also be found in the Midrash: " 'And it was evening and it was morning of _one_day_ (Yom Echad)' -- Hash-m gave [the Jewish people] one day, and that day is Yom Kipur [on which he atones for the sins of Israel, and allows the world to continue to exist]" (Bereishis Raba 3:8). Another Midrash puts it, " 'Many days will be created, but He has only one from among them (Tehilim 139:16)' -- There are 365 days in a year, but Hash-m chose from among them only one day: Yom Kipur" (Tana Dvei Eliyahu Raba 1).
2. Much of Maseches Yoma is dedicated to the Avodah that was performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash on this holiest day of the year, a solemn rite that climaxed in the Kohen Gadol's annual offering of incense in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim. In fact, Yoma and Pesachim tie for what is by far the largest collection of Hilchos Kodshim in a Maseches outside of Seder Kodshim. Only the last Perek of the Maseches deals with the more familiar laws of the five Inuyim (oppressions) and the Teshuvah of Yom Kipur.
(b) RASHI AND TOSFOS - The style of Rashi in this Maseches is similar to his style in the rest of Shas. There are two sets of Tosfos printed on every Daf of Yoma. Those printed opposite Rashi have been attributed to Rabeinu Meir (a.k.a Maharam) of Rotenberg, mentor of the Rosh, Hagahos Maimonei and Rabeinu Peretz (according to the Si'ach Yitzchak, Yoma 2a), while the "Tosfos Yeshanim" printed in the margins have been attributed to Tosfos Rabeinu Yehudah Sirleon (see our introduction to Berachos II:5:a), as recorded by Rav Moshe of Coucy, the author of Sefer Mitzvos Gedolos (S'mag) (see, for example, Tosfos ha'Rosh 61b DH Asham, Tosfos Rabeinu Yehudah to Berachos 44b DH Lim'utei -- the Shem ha'Gedolim originally suggested that they were written by Rav Shimshon of Shanz, but later researchers rejected the suggestion based on the above, and other, sources). The latter have recently been reprinted from manuscript, see below II:5:a.
(This section includes a roughly chronological listing of Rishonim who wrote a Daf-by-Daf commentary on the Maseches. We have included some of the less familiar commentaries even though they were written on the Rif, and not on the Maseches itself.)
(1) EARLY, PRE-RASHI COMMENTARIES
(a) RABEINU CHANANEL - Rabeinu Chananel ben Chushiel, lived in the 11th century. His father, Rabeinu Chushiel, was one of the famous "four captives" (a group of Roshei Yeshiva who were captured by pirates and redeemed separately by communities along the Mediterranean coast). He was redeemed from bondage in Kirouan, North Africa, and it was there that Rabeinu Chananel was born. Rabeinu Chananel's commentary on Yoma appears in the margins of the Vilna Shas beginning from Daf 8b, and was recently reprinted from manuscript with annotations by Rav David Metzger (Wagschal, Yerushalayim).
(b) PERUSH RABEINU ELYAKIM - first printed from manuscript by Rav Dov Genachowski (Yerushalayim, 1963) and recently reprinted together with Tosfos Ri ha'Lavan (see below, II:4:b, Wagshal, Yerushalayim 1991). Rabeinu Elyakim ben Meshulam Halevi (d. 1100), father in law of the RIVA (Rav Yitzchak ben Asher of Speyer, one of the earliest Ba'alei ha'Tosfos), was a student of the disciples of Rabeinu Gershom Me'or ha'Golah (such as Rav Yitzchak b'Rebbi Yehudah "Moreh Tzedek" of Mainz and Rav Yitzchak b'Rebbi Eliezer ha'Levi "Segan Leviyah"), and is himself considered to be one of the "Chachmei Magentz (Mainz)" who recorded and compiled notes on the Talmud based on the teachings of Rabeinu Gershom. Apparently a contemporary of Rashi who studied in the same schools as Rashi, Rabeinu Elyakim wrote a Rashi-like commentary on the entire Talmud (Teshuvos Maharshal #29); unfortunately, all that remains today is his commentary on Maseches Yoma.
That, at least, is what Rav Dov Genechovski writes in his enlightening and exhaustive introduction to this Perush. He ignores the fact, however, that what Rav Betzalel Ashkenazi quotes from Rabeinu Elyakim ben Meshulam (Teshuvos Rav Betzalel Ashkenazi #1) appears verbatim in the commentary printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas on Kodshim (under the name "Rabeinu Gershom), and many other Rishonim who cite from that commentary called it "Perush Rabeinu Elyakim" as well. The same applies to the commentary named "Perush Rabeinu Gershom" that is printed in the margin of the Vilna Shas on Bava Basra and Ta'anis. (In our introduction to Kerisus, 2:a we cited a number of these sources, culled from Rav Elchanan Wasserman, introduction to Kovetz He'oros; Rav Yakov David Ilan in his preface to Shitah Mekubetzes, Menachos. We also discussed there the Rishonim who attribute other authorship to this Perush.) Rav Genechovsky himself cites many of these sources in his introduction (footnote #18 and pps. 10, 14-25).
It should be noted that in the Shitah Mekubetzes to Temurah and Me'ilah, Rav Betzalel Ashkenazi himself often refers to the commentary on Kodshim as "Perush Rabeinu Elyakim bar Klonimus" (a fact which is noted also at the beginning of this commentary on Kerisus, in the Vilna Shas). Nevertheless, it appears to have been authored by the same author that penned our Perush; perhaps his grandfather's name was Klonimus. (It is possible that he was a son of Rabeinu Meshulam b'Rebbi Klonimus, grandson of Rebbi Klonimus b'Rebbi Meshulam ha'Gadol of Luka. [The latter Rebbi Meshulam was a contemporary of the late Ge'onim, and is cited by Rashi in Zevachim 45b DH Hachi Garsinan]. If so, his brother is the one who recorded for posterity Rav Amnon's prayer, "u'Nesaneh Tokef," as the Or Zaru'a writes at the end of Hilchos Rosh Hashanah.) The name "ben Klonimus" does not appear elsewhere; aside from the citations in the Shitah Mekubetzes to Kodshim, those who attribute the Perush to Rabeinu Elyakim (including Rav Betzalel Ashkenazi himself) refer to it simply as "Rabeinu Elyakim" or "Rabeinu Elyakim Halevy." (See, for example, Shitah Mekubetzes to Kesuvos 100b, 20b, Or Zaru'a, Pesachim Siman 216 and elsewhere, etc.)
Rabeinu Elyakim, then, indeed left us a lasting legacy, which is studied by all who learn Kodshim, Bava Basra and Ta'anis today. In conclusion we may point out that even if those commentaries truly were compiled by Rabeinu Elyakim, they were culled mostly from the teachings of Rabeinu Gershom. Conversely, even if they were not compiled by Rabeinu Elyakim, since both they and Rabeinu Elyakim's comments are based on the teachings of Rabeinu Gershom, they apparently vary little from each other. In fact, the commentary printed instead of Rashi on Me'ilah (see our introduction to Me'ilah) is surprisingly similar to the commentary of Rabeinu Gershom on that Maseches, diverging only slightly one from the other. The Rashi-replacement may be one record of Rabeinu Gershom's teachings, while the "Rabeinu Gershom" printed in the margin may actually be Rabeinu Elyakim's record of the same (since that is what the Shitah Mekubetzes there calls it).
Before going on, let us make one more point about this Perush. Unlike the Perush on Kodshim mentioned above, Rabeinu Elyakim in Yoma makes reference to a number of his sources with ambiguous Roshei Teivos. Rav Nasan Neta Rabinowitz, in the introduction to his Dikdukei Sofrim (Rosh Hashanah), deciphered many of them, as follows: Ches-Mem = Chachmei Magence (i.e. Mainz); Ches-Ayin = Chachmei Iri (i.e. Worms); Tes-Alef = Ta'am Acher; Tes-Nun = Ta'am Nosaf (Rav Genechovski's suggestion); Mem-Tzadik = Moreh Tzedek; Ayin-Kof = ?? (cited once in this Perush as proof for a certain Girsa, perhaps Edus Klonimus -- see Rashi Beitzah 24a DH v'La'erev -- M. KORNFELD).
(c) PERUSH KADMON - printed from manuscript with notes by Rav B. M. Levine in the Otzar ha'Ge'onim to Maseches Yoma (Jerusalem, 1933).
(2) SPAIN (ARAGON)
(a) RITVA - Rabeinu Yom Tov ben Avraham Al'ashvili, who lived in the 1300's, was a close disciple of the Re'ah and, later, of the Rashba. His commentary on Maseches Yoma is included in the common set of Chidushei ha'Ritva and was reprinted with annotations by Rav Eliyahu Lichtenstein (Mosad ha'Rav Kook, Yerushalayim, 1976). Since we do not have the usual Daf-by-Daf commentaries of the Chidushei ha'Ramban (except for two or three paragraphs), Rashba, or Chidushei ha'Ran on Yoma, the Ritva is the only one of the familiar, Spanish Rishonim whose running commentary on the Maseches has reached us. When the Ritva on Yoma quotes from Tosfos, it is usually to be found in the Tosfos Yeshanim printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas (see below, 5:a).
(3) PROVENCE & NARVONA
(a) RABEINU YEHONASAN MI'LUNIL - Lived in the early 1200's and learned under the Ra'avad. He wrote a commentary on the Rif for most of Shas, including Yoma.
(b) SEFER HA'HASHLAMAH - Rabeinu Meshulam ben Moshe wrote Sefer ha'Hashlamah on the Rif in order to complement the Rif's commentary by adding the Halachos that were not discussed by the Rif. He died in 1238. His commentary is included in Rav Moshe Herschler's Ginzei Rishonim (Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli).
(c) RABEINU AVRAHAM (BEN HARAV YITZCHAK) MIN HA'HAR - that is, from Montpellier, a contemporary of the Ramban and the Rashba. A major goal of this commentary is to explain each Sugya according to the Rambam. The author of this manuscript appears to be the author of the commentaries "Tosfos Rid" and "Tosfos Ri ha'Zaken" which are printed in the margins of Maseches Gitin and Kidushin, respectively. His commentary on Maseches Yoma was published from the author's own manuscript by Rav Moshe Yehudah ha'Kohen Blau (New York, 1975).
(d) ME'IRI - Rabeinu Menachem ben Shlomo (d. 1315) wrote his comprehensive Halachic work, "Beis ha'Bechirah," on 37 Masechtos of Shas. A student of the Rashba, he sometimes even cites from commentaries as late as those of the Ritva. Almost never mentioning another Rishon by name, the Meiri created "nicknames" for the commentators from whom he often cites, such as "Gedolei ha'Rabanim" for Rashi, etc. A convenient list of these, along with their true identities, can be found at the beginning of the Beis ha'Bechirah on Beitzah.
(a) RA'AVAN - Rabeinu Eliezer ben Nasan of Mainz (d. 1170). A contemporary of Rashbam and Rabeinu Tam, he was one of the earliest of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos. The Rosh was among his descendants. (There are only about two pages on Maseches Yoma.)
(b) TOSFOS RI HA'LAVAN - Rabeinu Yitzchak bar Yakov ha'Lavan of Prague, Dayan in Regensberg (where he died, approx. 1180). One of the Ba'alei ha'Tosfos, Ri ha'Lavan was a Talmid, or Talmid Chaver, of Rabeinu Tam (see, for example, Tosfos Yevamos 5b DH Ad she'Yehei; 71b DH Sof) and a contemporary of Rashi's student Rabeinu Simcha, author of the Machzor Vitri (see Machzor Vitri p. 243). He was referred to as Rav Yitzchak "ha'Lavan" to differentiate between him and the other Rav Yitzchak's who lived in his generation, perhaps based on the color of his hair (see Rav Genachowski's Foreword). His commentaries on Masechtos Yoma amd Kesuvos have reached us. The adventures of his brother, Rav Pesachyah of Regensberg, during his voyage to Eretz Yisrael and back are recorded in the Sefer "Sibuv Rav Pesachyah." A third brother (mentioned in that Sefer) was known as Rav Nachman of Regensberg. (It is actually not clear whether the author of this Perush is Ri ha'Lavan; in his introduction to the 1962 printing the annotator casts doubt as to his authorship. In either case, the author was a student of RIVA -- Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Asher of Speyer -- referring to him constantly as "my Rebbi," as is evident from a comparison of his words on 7a DH Kevasim to the words of the Tosfos ha'Rosh ibid.) The commentary, which only reaches until Daf 28, was originally printed in 1956 with footnotes and an introduction by Rav Dov Genachowski. It has recently been reprinted together with Perush Rabeinu Elyakim (see above, Wagshal, Yerushalayim 1991).
(c) RA'AVYAH - Rabeinu Eliezer ben Yoel ha'Levi (d. 1225), grandson of Ra'avan, authored "Sefer Avi ha'Ezri," which is more commonly known by its author's acronym as "Sefer Ra'avyah."
(d) OR ZARU'A - Rabeinu Yitzchak ben Moshe (d. 1260) authored the Or Zarua. He studied under many of the great sages of his times, including Rabeinu Yehudah he'Chasid, the Ra'avyah, the Sar mi'Kutzi, and the Ba'al ha'Roke'ach. (His son, Rav Chaim Or Zarua, wrote a collection of Teshuvos.) Rabeinu Yitzchak named his work "Or Zarua" out of his excitement when he noted that the end letters of the verse "Or Zarua la'Tzadik..." spell out "R' Akiva." The Or Zarua usually prefaces each Halachah with a citation of the pertinent Gemara and Rashi, making him an excellent source for verifying variant Girsa'os in Rashi. His work details the Halachic opinions as based on the Gemara, setting the pace for the Rosh and others. (According to Rabbi Berel Wein, the Or Zaru'a, printed as it was in a time of increasing persecution against the Jews and decreasing scholarship, opened up new venues of learning for the Jewish people and is considered to have saved Talmudic scholarship in Europe.)
(e) TOSFOS RID & PISKEI RID - Rabeinu Yeshaya (ben Mali, or ha'Rishon) d'Trani was one of the leading sages of Italy/Germany during the early 1200's. His commentary on most of the Masechtos of Shas is known as "Tosfos Rid." He also compiled a Halachic summary of the Maseches called "Piskei Rid," printed in 1992 by Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli.
(f) PISKEI RI'AZ - by the grandson of the above, Rabeinu Yeshaya Acharon Z'L, printed together with Piskei Rid, as listed above. It is often cited in the SHILTEI GIBORIM on the Rif.
(g) RIVEVAN - Rabeinu Yehudah ben Binyamin ha'Rofei from the family of the Anavim (d. 1280), who studied in Germany under Rabeinu Avigdor Kohen Tzedek and became one of the leading sages of Italy, wrote a commentary to the Rif for many Masechtos. Among his students was the Shibolei ha'Leket. Printed in Harav Moshe Herschler's Ginzei Rishonim (Mechon ha'Talmud ha'Yisraeli).
(5) TOSFOS-STYLE COMMENTARIES
(a) TOSFOS YESHANIM - Attributed to Rabeinu Yehudah Sirleon, as mentioned above (I:b). The original Tosfos Yeshanim were riddled with printer's errors, many of which are pointed out by the Si'ach Yitzchak (see below, III:1) and some of which are noted in the Vilna Shas. They have recently been reprinted, and their errors corrected, from manuscript by Harav Avigdor Arieli in an independent volume (Mechon Lev Same'ach/Wagschal, Yerushalayim 1993) which makes them readable without a magnifying glass, together with "Kovetz Rishonim Al Seder Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim," a collection of works by Rishonim on the Yom Kipur Avodah.
(b) LIKUTEI TOSFOS RABEINU PERETZ - the commentaries of Rabeinu Peretz were compiled and published by his students (who include the Mordechai), which explains why he is often quoted by name in his own Tosfos. Rabeinu Peretz was a student of Rabeinu Yechiel of Paris and Rav Meir of Rotenberg. His commentary on Yoma is not nearly as comprehensive as it is on other Masechtos, as there are only a few comments of Rabeinu Peretz dispersed throughout the Maseches. These comments were compiled by his students and were first printed in the Shitah Mekubetzes in the margin of the Venice printing of the Shas. They were reprinted in 1996 in the set of "Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz ha'Shalem" (Matam Publishing, Yerushalayim).
(c) TOSFOS HA'ROSH - Rabeinu Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1328), originally from Germany, fled to Spain after his mentor, Rav Meir of Rotenberg, was taken captive by the authorities and passed away in jail. One of the great sages of Germany, he wrote commentaries and rulings on most of Shas which had a profound influence on the current Halachic practice. His Tosfos are patterned after those of the classic Ba'alei ha'Tosfos, and often shed light on Tosfos' intent. Tosfos ha'Rosh on Yoma, available in the common set of Tosfos ha'Rosh, were recently reprinted from manuscript with annotations. Nearly all of the comments of Tosfos ha'Rosh on Yoma are based on the words of Tosfos Yeshanim.
(1) ACHARONIM ON YOMA
(a) SI'ACH YITZCHAK - by Rav Yitchak Nunis Weiss of Livorno, first published in Levorno in 1766. An indispensable Pshat-based commentary, Si'ach Yitzchak was written on Maseches Yoma and Chagigah and includes Chidushim on the Gemara, Rashi, and Tosfos, as well as corrections and comments on the commentary of the Tosfos Yeshanim and citations from the Me'iri.
(b) GEVUROS ARI - Chidushim on Yoma, Makos, and Ta'anis by Hagaon Rav Aryeh Leib of Mitz, author of Sha'agas Aryeh (Teshuvos) and Turei Even (Megilah, Rosh ha'Shanah, Chagigah). Written in the now famous style of his Turei Even, the Chidushim on Yoma and Makos were first published by the Chafetz Chaim.
(c) TOSFOS YOM HA'KIPURIM - beautiful insights on the last Perek of Yoma, by Rav Moshe ben Chaviv (Maharam Ibn Chaviv). Published together with his two other popular commentaries on the Gemara, "Yom Teru'ah" (Rosh Hashanah, Perek 3) and "Kapos Temarim" (Sukah, Perek 3). Some of the printings include marginal notes and comments by later Geonim such as Rebbi Akiva Eiger. First published in Costantinople in 1728.
(d) REBBI AKIVA EIGER - A large collection on the Maseches, culled from all of his writings was published in Zichron Yakov, 5743 (1983).
(e) SEFAS EMES - short and penetrating insights by Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Gur, the second Gerer Rebbe, grandson of the Chidushei ha'Rim (the first Gerer Rebbe).
(f) MEROMEI SADEH - Chidushim on most of Shas by the Netziv (Rav N'aftali Tz'vi Y'ehudah B'erlin, great grandson of Rav Chaim of Volozhen), the last Volozhener Rosh Yeshiva. The Netziv's works include Ha'amek Davar on the Torah as well as well-used in-depth commentaries on the Sifri, Mechilta and She'iltos, responsa called "Meshiv Davar," and others.
(g) LIKUTEI HALACHOS - by the Chafetz Chayim, on the parts of Yoma that deal with Kodshim (which is most of the Maseches). Written in the style of the Rif, the Chafetz Chaim compiled a collection of the Gemara's conclusions along with Rashi-style glosses and an additional commentary, called ZEVACH TODAH, in which he provides insights into the Halachos.
(h) CHIDUSHEI MARAN RI'Z HA'LEVY - compiled by his sons, this is a small collection of the Chidushim of the Brisker Rav on the Maseches (Jerusalem, 1978).
(i) AVODAS YOM HA'KIPURIM - a Daf by Daf analysis of the part of the Maseches that deals with the Avodah (Perakim 1-7) culled from the Shi'urim of the late Hagaon Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik of Boston. Printed by Harav Aharon Lichtenstein (Yibadel l'Chayim) with a short forward by Rav Soloveitchik.
(j) MENACHEM MESHIV - short, helpful comments pertaining to the literal meaning of the Gemara and Rashi, meant for those learning the Maseches quickly -- on Berachos and all of Seder Mo'ed. Includes many Girsa corrections as well.
(k) KOLLEL IYUN HADAF - The Kollel's invaluable "Insights to the Daf" touch on many of the questions one is likely to ask on Gemara and Rashi, as well as Halachic clarifications and in-depth discussions on issues and Agados of the Maseches. Our helpful "Charts" and "Background to the Daf" make the Maseches much more approachable, with translations, Girsa notes, and introductions to concepts discussed on the Daf. Summarize what you have learned with our "Review Questions and Answers," or our "Outlines of the Daf," or, if you prefer Hebrew, review with our "Concise Hebrew Review of the Daf." Ask the Kollel your questions on the Daf and receive clear, authoritative answers.
(l) YOSEF DA'AS - Published by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Rav Ben Arza's renowned Hebrew compendium on the Masechta is now available in an expanded, hardcover second-edition. This outstanding publication provides clear summaries of the distinct approaches of the Rishonim to the Sugya, analyses of the Acharonim, inspiring insights of the masters of Musar and Machshavah, and summaries of the Halachic conclusions of the Poskim. A comprehensive review section is also included.
(a) GILYONEI HA'SHAS - by Rav Yosef Engel, author of "Asvan d'Oraisa." Mostly references to, and quotes from, the writings of the Rishonim in their responsa and other early works, with additional insights by the author.
(b) OR HA'YASHAR - important and fascinating references on every Daf of the Shas (and on Tanach and Mishnayos as well) by Rav Shmuel Hilman.
(c) ASIFAS ZEKENIM - a four-volume collection of works by Acharonim on Maseches Yoma. (Includes the SI'ACH YITZCHAK, mentioned above, which takes up most of one volume.)
b'Hatzlachah in Maseches Yoma!