ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The name of the fourth Perek is 'Taraf be'Kalpi'. On one of the lots that the Kohen Gadol drew from the Kalpi was written - 'la'Hashem', on the other 'la'Az'azel'.
(b) The Kohen Gadol needed to grab them suddenly - to prevent him from picking them carefully ...
(c) ... which he might do to ensure that the lot on which was written 'la'Hashem' would come up in his right hand (which in turn, would be a good Si'man).
(d) The person standing on his ...
1. ... right-hand side was - the S'gan, whilst the one on his left was -
2. ... left was - the Rosh Beis-Av.
(e) Likewise, one of the goats was standing on his right, the other on, on his left.
(a) If the shel Shem came up in his right hand, the S'gan would say to the Kohen Gadol - 'My master, the Kohen Gadol, raise your right-hand!', whereas ...
(b) ... if it came up in his left hand, the Rosh Beis-Av would say to him - 'My master, the Kohen Gadol, raise your left-hand!'
(c) The Kohen Gadol then placed the two lots - on the heads of the two respective goats.
(a) As he placed the lot that came up for Hash-m on the head of whichever goat it happened to be, he declared - 'la'Hashem Chatas!'
(b) According to Rebbi Yishmael - he merely declared 'la'Hashem!'
(c) The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.
(d) The people responded to the Kohen Gadol's declaration - by exclaiming 'Baruch Shem K'vod Malchuso le'Olam Va'ed!'
(a) They tied - a red (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Kashar' & 'Zehoris') piece of wool to the head of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach?
(b) They stood the goat - beside the gate through which it would shoirtly leave the Azarah for its final destination.
(c) They tied the equivalent red piece of wool on to the Sa'ir la'Hashem's - neck (in the location of the Beis ha'Shechitah).
(d) They made a point of tying the red thread on different locations on the two goats - so as not to confuse the two goats.
(e) By tying the red thread to both goats - they would not confuse them with other goats either.
(a) The Kohen Gadol then approached his bull a second time and placed both his hands on it - before proceeding to say Viduy.
(b) He incorporated - all the Kohanim in his Viduy (which he not do the first time [See Tos. Yom-Tov]
(c) The author of the Mishneh is Rebbi Meir, who learns from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Vehisvadeh alav es Kol Avonos B'nei Yisrael, ve'es Kol Pish'eihem le'Chol Chatosam" - that the correct order of Viduy is 'Avisi, Pasha'ti, Chatasi'.
(a) The order, according to the Chachamim, is - 'Chatasi, Avisi, Pashati'.
(b) Their objection to Rebbi Meir's explanation is based on the meaning of the three expressions ...
1. ... 'Avonos' - sins committed out of pleasure ...
2. ... 'Pesha'im" - acts of rebellion, and ...
3. ... 'Chata'im' - sins committed be'Shogeg (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The basis of the Chachamim's objection is - having already confessed to having committing sins on purpose, what sense does it make to then go on to confess on sins committed be'Shogeg?
(a) The Chachamim then explain the above sequence (repeated in the Torah in Ki Sissa, when Moshe said "Nosei Avon va'Fesha ve'Chata'ah") as a request to Hash-m - that when Yisrael sin and do Teshuvah, he should turn their sins be'Meizid into sins be'Shogeg (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Chachamim support their explanation from the Pasuk in Tehilim - "Chatanu im Avoseinu, He'evinu Hirsha'nu".
(a) The Kohen Gadol then Shechted the bull (See Tos. Yom-Tov), received the blood in a bowl, which he promptly handed to another Kohen. When the Tana says that the other Kohen was 'Memareis' the blood, he means - that he stirred, shook and mixed it ...
(b) ... to prevent it from congealing, whilst the Kohen Gadol had to perform another Avodah before sprinkling it (as we shall see shortly).
(c) Bearing in mind that each row of tiles in the Beis-Hamikdash was called a 'Roved', the Kohen was standing - in the Azarah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) on a tile in the fourth row from the Heichal whilst he stirred the blood.
(d) The Mishnah cannot mean 'the fourth row in the Heichal' - because the Torah specifically states in Acharei-Mos that when the Kohen Gadol entered the Heichal on Yom Kipur, nobody else was permitted to be there.
(e) Before sprinkling the blood of his Par - the Kohen Gadol performed the Avodas ha'Ketores.
(a) The Kohen Gadol then took the Machtah (a fire-pan) and ascended the ramp to the Mizbe'ach - from where he took a shovel-full of well-burned coals (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(b) ... after moving the burning coals to to the side to reveal the middle of the burning coals, from which he took the shovel-full...
(c) ... before placing the Machtah on the floor of the Azarah beside the Kohen who was still stirring the blood (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) He retrieved it and took into the Kodesh Kodshim - after placing a hand-full of Ketores into the 'Kaf' (a form of ladle) ...
(e) ... which he took together with the Machtah, into the Kodesh Kodshim.
(a) Throughout the year, the Kohen would take the shovel-full of ashes for the Ketores with a silver Machtah and pour them into a golden one - because shovelling hot coals spoils the vessel, and Hash-m 'has pity on the money of Yisrael' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) On Yom-Kipur however, the Kohen Gadol used a golden Machtah only - so that the Kohen Gadol should need to exert himself more than necessary, by having to pour the ashes from one vessel into another.
(c) According to the Tana Kama, throughout the year, the Kohen would use a Machtah that held four Kabin of ashes, and then pour the ashes into one that held three. The Machtah of Yom-Kipur however - held three Kabin.
(d) Rebbi Yossi however, maintains that during the year, the initial Machtah held - a Sa'ah (six Kabin).
(a) Throughout the year, the Machtah used by the Kohen was heavy, whereas that of Yom Kipur was light - that- due to the difference between the thickness of the walls.
(b) The difference between the handle of the Machtah all the year round and the one that that the Kohen Gadol used on Yom-Kipur was - that the latter was longer ...
(c) ... to enable the Kohen Gadol to help bear the weight of the Machtah by placing the end of the handle under his arm-pit.
(a) According to Rebbi Menachem. throughout the year, the Machtah for the Ketores was made of yellow-gold, whereas on Yom-Kipur - the Kohen Gadol used one of red-gold (which is far more valuable [See Tos. Yom-Tov[ and) which was called ...
(b) ... 'Zahav Parvayim' - because it resembled the blood of bulls.
(a) The two final distinctions between Yom Kipur and all the year round concerned the Ketores itself. Throughout the year, the Kohen brought a P'ras = (half a Manah) in the morning and a P'ras in the afternoon.
(b) On Yom-Kipur, the Kohen Gadol added - his (cupped) hands-full.
(c) Throughout the year, the Ketores was ground fine (Dakah), on Yom Kipur - it was ground very fine (Dakah min ha'Dakah [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(d) We learn this from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "u'M'lo Chafnaf Ketores Samim Dakah" - which indicates that, on Yom Kipur, the already finely-ground Ketores must be even finer.
(a) Throughout the year, the Kohanim would ascend the ramp on the east (and descend on the west) - based on the principle that 'Wherever you turn, always go via the right (See Tos. Yom-Tov [and the right side of the ramp was its eastern side]).
(b) The Tana Kama says that the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur - ascended in the middle of the ramp ...
(c) ... as a mark of Kavod.
(d) According to Rebbi Yehudah - he did so the whole year round.
(a) In similar fashion, the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah argue over the Kohen Gadol's washing facilities. If the Kohanim washed their hands and feet from the Kiyor (the copper basin) in the Azarah, on Yom Kipur, the Tana Kama maintainse, the Kohen Gadol washed from a golden crucible (See Tos. Yom-Tov), whereas according to Rebbi Yehudah, he did so the whole year round.
(a) Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Yossi and Rebbi Yehudah argue over the number of 'Ma'arachos' (piles of wood) on the Mizbe'ach. According to Rebbi Meir, throughout the year, there were four Ma'arachos, whereas on Yom Kipur - there were three.
(b) The ...
1. ... first Ma'asrachah was the big Ma'arachah on which they burned the Tamid shel Shachar, the second Ma'arachah was - to take from it fire to kindle the wood on the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores.
2. ... third Ma'arachah was that of Kiyum ha'Eish (to ensure that there was always a fire burning on the Mizbe'ach, whereas the fourth was - for the limbs and fat-pieces of the Tamid shel bein ha'Arbayim (to burn the limbs and fat-pieces which did not burn all night).
(c) On Yom Kipur, they added - a fifth Ma'arachah from which they took the coals to take into the Kodesh Kodshim (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi, throughout the year, there were only three Ma'arachos - based on the Pasuk in Tzav - which mentions a Lashon of burning ("Mokdah, Tukad and Tukad") three times.
(b) He omits the Ma'arachos - for Ma'arachah for the Tamid shel bein ha'Arbayim ...
(c) ... whose Evarim and Pedarim the Kohanim burned - besides the large Ma'arachah of the Tamid shel Shachar.
(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah - throughout the year there were two Ma'arachos, and on Yom Kipur, three.
(b) He also omits - the third Ma'arachah of Kiyum ha'Eish.
(c) He then learn from Rebbi Yossi's third Pasuk ("ve'ha'Eish al ha'Mizbe'ach Tukad bo Lo Sichbeh") - that if a Kohen kindles splinters of wood to help light up the Ma'arachah, he should do so on top of the Mizbe'ach, and not on the floor of the Azarah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Halachah is like - Rebbi Yossi.