POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
1) ESCORTING THE USHER OF THE SA'IR
(a) The prominent Jews would escort the usher to the first
booth en route to Azazel.
2) THE TEN SUKOS
(b) There were ten booths from Yerushalayim to Azazel (90 Ris
@ 7.5 Ris per Mil).
(c) At each booth he was offered food or drink in the event
that the fast was too difficult for him.
(d) The residents of each booth would escort him to the next
booth and the last would watch him proceed to the cliff.
(e) At the cliff the usher would divide a red thread, tying
half to a stone and half between the horns of the Sa'ir.
(f) He would push the Sa'ir backward where it would break up
on the rocks of the cliff, long before it landed at the
(g) He would return to the last Sukah.
(h) (Tana Kama): His garments would be Tamei from his
departure from Yerushalayim.
(i) (R. Shimon): From the point of pushing the Sa'ir.
(a) (R. Meir): There were 10 Sukos over 12 Mil distance from
Yerushalayim to the cliff.
3) OFFERING FOOD AND DRINK
(b) (R. Yehudah): Nine Sukos over 10 Mil.
(c) (R. Yosi): Five Sukos over 10 Mil, each employing an Eruv
Techumin to escort him the entire distance.
1. R. Yosi reported that his son, Elazar,
lightheartedly indicated that, based on his father's
reasoning, he could make do with two Sukos.
(d) Question: Who is the Tana who holds that the residents of
the last Sukah would (have to) stand and watch him from
(e) Answer: It is R. Meir (10 Sukos over 12 Mil).
(a) The Beraisa teaches that the offer of food was never
accepted, but the usher benefited from its being
4) THE RED THREAD
(b) This is called 'Pas be'Salo' (lit. bread in his basket).
(a) Question: Why divide the thread at all; let him tie it
all to the rock?
5) DERIVING HANAAH FROM THE BROKEN PARTS OF THE SAIR
(b) Answer: For fear that it may turn white right away and
(in his joy) he will neglect his mission (pushing off the
(c) Question: Then tie it all onto the Sa'ir?
(d) Answer: Perhaps the Sa'ir will fall such that its horns
will be concealed from view.
(e) The Beraisa teaches that the thread was once hung
publicly and would cause the people's mood to change
based on whether or not the thread turned white.
(f) They instituted that it would be tied to the rock, out of
public view (R. Elazar ha'Kapar reported similarly).
(a) Question: Is such benefit permitted?
(b) Answer: It is a dispute between Rav and Shmuel.
6) THE PLACE OF AZAZEL
1. Heter can be derived from the Hefker implications of
the extra word "ba'Midbar".
(c) The Mutar position seems logical since, otherwise, the
Torah has given an instruction which could lead to a
great stumbling (if someone unwittingly benefited from
those found parts of the Sa'ir).
2. Isur could be derived from the stringency implied by
3. Question: According to the Isur opinion, what is the
role of "ba'Midbar"?
4. Answer: It teaches that the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach is
done even when the Ohel Mo'ed has been replaced with
Mishkan and Mikdash.
5. Question: What will the Heter opinion do with the
6. Answer: It teaches that the cliff must be jagged.
7. Alternate Answer: It refers to the quality of the
Sa'ir as that which breaks apart as it falls.
8. Alternate Answer: It is a decree (Gezeirah) from
Hash-m, even if its Kaparah is unfathomable.
(a) As its name implies, it is doubly harsh ('Az' and 'El').
7) "TUM'AS" BEGADIM OF THE MISHTALE'ACH
(b) "ba'Midbar' teaches that it may not be in a place of
(c) "Gezeirah" teaches that it is a cliff.
(d) Another Beraisa teaches that it is the harshest of
mountains (proof text).
(e) (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): The name Azazel alludes to its
atonement for Uza and Aza'el (Arayos, -Rashi).
(f) The Beraisa teaches that "Es Mishpatei Ta'asu" refers to
Mitzvos which are logical; while "Es Chukosei Tishmeru"
is Hashem's demand of fidelity regarding that which is
mysterious and which the Satan claims is meaningless
(including the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach).
(a) The usher himself contracts Tum'as Begadim but not his
escorts (or the Kohen Gadol) who accompany him.
8) MISHNAH: THE AVODAH AFTER SENDING THE SA'IR
(b) The Beraisa negates the possibilities that his Tum'as
Begadim began directly upon leaving the Azarah or only
once he arrives at the cliff.
(c) (R. Yehudah): The Tum'ah begins once he leaves the
walls of Yerushalayim.
(d) (R. Yosi): Once he arrives at the cliff.
(e) (R. Shimon): Once he pushes it over the cliff.
(a) He removed the Eimurim from the Par and Sa'ir.
9) BRINGING THE EIMURIM ONTO THE MIZBEACH
(b) He placed the Eimurim in a Meigis and brought them onto
the Mizbe'ach as a Kaparah.
(c) He braided the two animals on top of one another and four
people carried them out, whole, to be burnt.
(d) (Tana Kama): Tum'as Begadim (for the ones dealing with
the burning) begins upon leaving the Azarah.
(e) (R. Shimon): From the moment the fire takes hold of the
majority of the Par and Sa'ir.
(a) Question: Does the Mishnah really mean that he does the
Haktarah now (given that there are many Avodos between
removing the Eimurim and putting them on the Mizbe'ach)!?
(b) Answer: It means that he placed them in the Meigis in
order to (later) offer them as a Ketores.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Yoma