YOMA 48 (23 Teves) - Dedicated in memory of Nachum ben Shlomo Dovid Mosenkis Z"L, who passed away on 23 Teves 5700, by his son and daughter-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Sid Mosenkis.

[48a - 32 lines; 48b - 9 lines]

1a)[line 1]דבקיה לקומץDABKEI LA'KOMETZ- if [the Kohen who performed Kemitzah] stuck the Kometz

b)[line 1]בדופניה דמנאB'DOFNEI D'MANA- a) to the [side of the inner] wall of the utensil [which sanctifies the Kometz] (RASHI); b) to the [side of the inner] wall of the utensil [in which the utensil is baked before then removing it as the Kometz] (RAMBAM; see Insights)

2)[line 4]אפכיה למנאAPCHEI L'MANA- if he inverted the utensil

3)[line 5]בארעיתיה דמנאB'AR'ISEI D'MANA- a) into the bowl-like stand of the inverted utensil (RASHI Menachos 11a); b) to the [currently upside-down) bottom of the inverted utensil (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #29 in the name of RASHI MANUSCRIPT, ibid.)

4a)[line 8]מחוקותMECHUKOS- leveled off

b)[line 8]גדושותGEDUSHOS- heaping

c)[line 10]טפופותTEFUFOS- rounded off

5)[line 11]נשפך הדםNISHPACH HA'DAM (ARBA AVODOS)

(a)The offering of a Korban consists of four primary actions. These four Avodos are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the lifeblood of the Korban in a vessel), Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (dashing the blood upon the Mizbe'ach).

(b)When a sacrifice provides atonement, it is through this service that the atonement is gained. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Ki ha'Dam Hu, ba'Nefesh Yechaper" - "for it is the blood that will atone for the soul" (Vayikra 17:11).

6a)[line 13]דם הנפשDAM HA'NEFESH- the lifeblood of the animal, which spurts out upon its slaughter

b)[line 14]דם העורDAM HA'OR- the blood collected under the skin

c)[line 14]דם התמציתDAM HA'TAMTZIS- that blood which drains out following the Dam ha'Nefesh

7)[line 14]דם, מהפר יקבלנוDAM, MEHA'PAR YEKABLENU- he must receive the blood [in a Kli Shares] directly from the bull['s neck]

8)[line 20]גורעין ומוסיפין ודורשיןGOR'IN U'MOSIFIN V'DORSHIN

(a)When deriving Halachos from verses, sometimes the principle of Gor'in u'Mosifin v'Dorshin applies. If the simple implication of what is written cannot be true due to that which is stated elsewhere, a letter written as part of one word may be viewed as if it is written as part of an adjacent word, and then the Halachah is derived from the new implication.

(b)This principle is utilized in our Gemara. The letter "Mem" is "removed" (Gor'in) from the word "mi'Dam" and "added" (Mosifin) to the word "ha'Par" to form the words "Dam meha'Par."

9)[line 21]נתפזרNISPAZER- scattered

10)[line 22]צוארTZAV'AR- neck

11)[line 23]כלי שרתKLI SHARES- a sanctified vessel used in the service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash

12)[line 24]חישבCHISHEV- if he had an invalidating thought. This refers to one of two possibilities:

a) פיגולPIGUL

(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(b)If a person intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul he is Chayav Kares; if he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas. (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144)

b) חוץ למקומוCHUTZ LI'MEKOMO

(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it outside of the area within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. This is derived from the fact that the Torah repeats the prohibition against offering a Korban with intention to offer or eat it Chutz li'Zemano (Vayikra 19:7; see previous entry.)

(b)If a person intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of a Korban that was offered with the intention to offer or eat it Chutz li'Mekomo, he receives Malkus.

13)[line 28]הוסיף רבי עקיבאHOSIF REBBI AKIVAH- Rebbi Akiva added [to the list of those items of Hekdesh that are Metamei all other such items in a container together with them when just the one item comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah (see Mishnah, Chagigah 20b)]

14)[line 29]לבונהLEVONAH- frankincense (alt. oliban; a Kometz of this is part of most Korbenos Minchah [see Background to 47:27:d])

15)[line 26]קא סלקא דעתךKA SALKA DA'ATACH- The Gemara uses the term "Ka Salka Da'atach," which usually dignifies an approach that the Gemara will ultimately reject, even though the proof from this Beraisa is conclusive. This is due to that which a) it is not a strong proof (TOSFOS YESHANIM); or b) the Gemara in Zevachim 104b presents a similar proof which is indeed rejected. Our Gemara borrowed the terminology used in that comparable discussion (RITVA).

16)[line 27]טבול יוםTEVUL YOM

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that were Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.

17)[line 27]לינהLINAH

(a)Linah - literally resting overnight - is the term used to describe part of a Korban left off of the Mizbe'ach beyond the time that the Korban may be consumed (either by people or the Mizbe'ach). Such pieces are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)Any material sanctified for use in the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash through being placed in a Kli Shares (sanctified vessel) is disqualified the next morning due to Linah.


18)[line 1]בחתיית גחליםB'CHATIYAS HA'GECHALIM- during the digging for the coal [used to burn the Ketores] (see Insights)

19)[line 3]הולכה בשמאלHOLACHAH B'SMOL- if [a Kohen] transported [the blood of a Korban to the Mizbe'ach] in his left (and less important) [hand]

20)[line 6]הרגל של ימין בשמאלHA'REGEL SHEL YEMIN B'SMOL (PAYIS)

(a)Four times every morning, the Kohanim gather in the Beis ha'Mikdash for a selection process known as a Payis. Each Payis designates a Kohen or Kohanim to perform a certain part or parts of the daily service. All Kohanim present stand in a circle and extend a finger. The officiating Kohen then arbitrarily chooses a number higher than that of the Kohanim present, and begins counting with any of the extended fingers. When he reaches the chosen number, that Kohen is selected to perform the Avodah.

(b)The first Payis determined which Kohen cleared the outer Mizbe'ach of ash. Originally this was determined by the winner of a foot race up the thirty-two Amah ramp of the Mizbe'ach. After an incident in which a Kohen fell off of the Kevesh and broke his leg, the Payis system was substituted.

(c)The second Payis determined the thirteen Kohanim employed in the offering of the Korban Tamid. These are:

1.The Kohen who slaughters the sheep

2.The Kohen who collects its blood in a Kli Shares (sanctified utensil) and performs Zerikas ha'Dam (placing the blood upon the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach)

3.The Kohen who cleans out the ashes of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi

4.The Kohen who cleans out the ashes of the Menorah

5.The Kohen who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder, the fatty membrane that divides the intestines from the stomachs) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

6.The Kohen who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

7.The Kohen who carries the hindquarters (including the fatty tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

8.The Kohen who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Geirah (neck) in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

9.The Kohen who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right flank with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Smol (the left flank with the upper ribs) in his left hand and places them on the Kevesh

10.The Kohen who carries the Kirbayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top and places them on the Kevesh

11.The Kohen who carries the Minchas Nesachim (see Background to Shekalim 14:78)

12.The Kohen who carries the Minchas Chavitin (see Background to Shekalim 19:14)

13.The Kohen who carries the wine libation (see Background to Shekalim 14:78).

(d)The Mishnah quoted in our Gemara refers to the fifth Kohen described above.

21)[line 6]בית עורה לחוץBEIS ORAH L'CHUTZ- the side of the leg still covered by hide (as opposed to that which had been severed from the body) facing outward [as this is more pleasing to look upon]

22)[last line]דמעכבא כפרהD'ME'AKVAH KAPARAH- that prevents atonement [if not performed properly (see Background to 46:15 and above, entry #5)]