YOMA 31 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which was included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[31a - 25 lines; 31b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1]חוצץCHOTZETZ- [does a substance intervening between one's skin and the water of the Mikvah] disqualify the immersion [as it does an immersion that is required mid'Oraisa]?

2)[line 3]ביאה במקצת שמה ביאה או לאBI'AH B'MIKTZAS SHEMAH BI'AH O LO?- is the entry of part of one's body into the Azarah considered entering the Azarah [such that it requires Tevilah] or not?

3)[line 4]בהונותBEHONOS- the right thumb and right big toe [of a Metzora, which he extends into the Azarah during his Taharah process (see Background to 30:31)]

4)[line 7]וישחוטV'YISHCHOT- and slaughter [a Korban while standing outside of the Azarah without first immersing in a Mikvah]

5a)[line 9]לגואיL'GAVA'I- those who [plan on] enter[ing] the Azarah

b)[line 9]לבראיL'VARA'I- those who [plan on] remain[ing] outside the Azarah

6)[line 10]אתי לאימשוכיASI L'IMSHUCHEI- he may be drawn inside

7)[line 18]שער המיםSHA'AR HA'MAYIM

(a)The Water Gate (TY #33; in the diagram, #33 should be in place of #34 on top of the gate), opposite the Mizbe'ach to the south, is opened once during the year. The procession carrying the water for the Nisuch ha'Mayim (see Background to Pesachim 34:25) passes through this gate on Sukos.

(b)The Amah-high, Amah-wide channel of water (the Amah) that runs through the Azarah flows out through the Sha'ar ha'Mayim. When the floor of the Azarah needed to be cleaned, the Amah is blocked up at this gate, causing it to overflow.

8)[line 18]ובצד לשכתו היתהUV'TZAD LISHKASO HAYAH- and [the Sha'ar ha'Mayim] was next to the room of the Kohen Gadol [in which he learned the art of Chafinah (see Background to 19:1) during the seven days before Yom Kipur]

9)[line 19]עין עיטםEIN EITAM- a) the spring of Eitam, near Solomon's pools to the south of Beis Lechem. Aqueducts brought water from Ein Eitam to Yerushalayim through the early 1900's and can still be seen today. RASHI suggests Ein Eitam may be Mei Nafto'ach, located to the north of Giv'at Sha'ul near the entrance to Yerushalayim (Lifta). This is difficult to understand, however, given that Ein Eitam is mentioned among the cities located to the south of Yerushalayim in Divrei ha'Yamim (Divrei ha'Yamim II 11:6). b) RABEINU ELYAKIM has the Girsa of SHEN OTAM - a tightly sealed (Atum) marble basin atop Sha'ar ha'Mayim that was in the shape of a tooth (Shen).

10)[line 21]שםSHAM- there [in the Beis ha'Mikdash]

11)[line 22]אולםULAM- (TY #56) the roofed hallway in front of the Sanctuary (Heichal); its roof is seventeen stories high.

12)[line 23]"[... וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת-] כָּל-בְּשָׂרוֹ ...""[... V'RACHATZ BA'MAYIM ES] KOL BESARO ..."- "[... and he shall immerse] all of his skin [in water ...]" (Vayikra 15:16). These extra words in this verse, written in reference to a Ba'al Keri (see Background to 6:12), teach us the minimal size of a kosher Mikvah.

13)[line 24]ברוםB'RUM- with a height of

14)[last line]ארבעים סאהARBA'IM SE'AH (MEASUREMENTS OF VOLUME)

1 Eifah = 3 Se'ah

1 Se'ah = 6 Kav

1 Kav = 4 Log

1 Log = 6 Beitzim = 4 Revi'is

1 Beitzah = approximately .0576 liters or .1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

forty Se'ah = approximately 331.7 liters or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

31b----------------------------------------31b

15a)[line 1]אמה תקרהAMAH TIKRAH- the thickness of the ceiling, which is an Amah

b)[line 1]אמה מעזיבהAMAH MA'AZIVAH- the thickness of the plaster [which serves as a floor for an upper story], which is an Amah

16)[line 2]שישאSHISHA (alt. SHAISHA)- [smooth] yellow marble or alabaster

17)[line 3]להוLEHU- the [thickness] of the roof

18)[line 6]עבודת היום בבגדי בוץAVODAS HA'YOM B'VIGDEI BUTZ (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)

(a)Every Kohen wears four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Migba'as (hat).

(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. These are the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead), Ephod (apron), Choshen (breastplate), and Me'il (robe).

(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).

(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a Pasuk (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.

(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kipur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). He changed his garments from Bigdei Zahav (his regular eight vestments) to Bigdei Lavan and vice versa five times over the course of the day.

19)[line 7]פשטPASHAT- [the Kohen Gadol] stripped off [his personal non-sanctified clothing]

20)[line 9]נסתפגNISTAPEG- he dried off

21)[line 10]תמידTAMID (KORBAN TAMID)

(a)The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep is offered in the morning, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, and the second - called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).

22)[line 10]קרצוKERATZO- he cut it [through the majority of the esophagus and windpipe, which is the minimal requirement of a Halachically valid slaughter]

23a)[line 11]ומירק אחר שחיטהU'MEREK ACHER SHECHITA- and a different Kohen finished the slaughter [since the Kohen Gadol, who is the only one empowered to perform the Avodah on Yom Kipur, must catch the blood of the Tamid as well]

b)[line 11]על ידוAL YADO- for him; alt. while standing near him

24)[line 11]קבל את הדםKIBEL ES HA'DAM- see next entry

25)[line 12]זרקוZARKO (ZERIKAS HA'DAM)

(a)The blood which exits the body of the Korban Tamid following its slaughter is collected in a bowl (Kabalas ha'Dam). It is then applied to the Keranos (cubic Amah posts placed upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach) in a manner known as "Shenayim she'Hen Arba" - "two that are four." This means that the blood is twice applied, but in four directions. First the Kohen walks to the northeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach and applies the blood along the eastern and northern sides of the Keren, and then he walks west and then south until he reaches the southwestern Keren, at which point he applies the blood along the western and southern sides.

26)[line 12]קטורתKETORES

(a)Ketores is the name of the incense mixture burned on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It is burned twice each day; in the morning when the Kohen cleans out the lamps of the Menorah, and in the evening when the Kohen lights the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:

1.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Sraf ha'Notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - balsam tree sap

2.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - the root of a certain annual plant. Some identify Tziporen as a species of rock-rose - Cistus ladaniferus - which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a kind of flower.

3.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that grows in Persia; b) some maintain that Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree

4.70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense, otherwise known as oliban; a gum resin produced by certain trees in Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter, nauseating taste. The gum is hard; when pulverized, it produces a powder. Burning this powder produced a strong aromatic odor.

5.16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh

6.16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia

7.16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard

8.16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron

9.12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus

10.3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark

11.9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon

(b)In addition, the following ingredients were added as incinerating agents:

1.1 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye

2.3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (app. 21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; alt., b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin is not available, then CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK - very old strong white wine - is added instead

3.One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt

4.A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - an ingredient that caused the smoke to rise straight up in the air; probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica (due to the nitric acid it contains)

(c)Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden (probably cyclamen) was added as well.

27)[line 12]להיטיב את הנרותL'HEITIV ES HA'NEROS (HATAVAS HA'NEROS)

(a)Every evening a Kohen kindles the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (Hadlakas ha'Neros). The Kohen places enough oil into the lamps of the Menorah for it to burn throughout the entire night.

(b)In the morning, a Kohen cleans out the charred wicks and any oil that remain in the Menorah's lamps, and replaces them with fresh wicks and oil (Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah). The spent wicks are placed in the pile of ashes next to the ramp of the Mizbe'ach formed by the Terumas ha'Deshen (see Background to 12:28).

(c)The Hatavas ha'Neros is accomplished in two stages. First the Kohen cleans out five of the lamps. He then waits for a certain other Avodah to be performed, and only afterwards does he clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah. What Avodah was performed in between is the subject of a disagreement between Tana'im. The Rabanan understand that it is the burning of the Ketores, while Aba Sha'ul maintains that it is the application of the blood of the Korban Tamid to the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach. There are Rishonim who are of the opinion that all seven lamps of the Menorah are cleaned at once, according to certain Tana'im.

(d)Some Rishonim assert that some or all of the lamps were lit in the morning as well as the evening. Also, the process described above is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning at the time of the Hatavas ha'Neros.

28)[line 13]את הראש ואת האבריםES HA'ROSH V'ES HA'EVARIM- the head and the limbs [of the Korban Tamid]

29)[line 14](והחביתין) [ואת החביתין](VEHA'CHAVITIN) [V'ES HA'CHAVITIN] (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)

(a)The Kohen Gadol offers a daily Minchah (see Background to 24:6:b) consisting of one-tenth of an Eifah of wheat flour. The dough is formed into twelve rolls that are boiled, baked, and then fried in olive oil in a flat pan. Six of these rolls are burned on the Mizbe'ach in the morning, and the remaining half towards evening (Vayikra 6:12).

30)[line 14]הייןHA'YAYIN (NESACHIM)

(a)Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibor (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.

(b)A Korban Tamid requires three Lugin (approximately one liter) of wine for its libation, and one Isaron (approximately two and a half liters) of flour mixed with three Lugin of oil for its Minchas Nesachim.

31)[line 17]איסטניסISTENIS- finicky

32)[line 17]מחמין לו חמיןMECHAMIN LO CHAMIN- they would heat water for him [on Erev Yom ha'Kipurim]

33)[line 18]תפיגTAFIG- weaken

34)[line 19]רבנןRABANAN- the Talmidim of Rav Papa

35)[line 19]האHA- that [which it says in our Mishnah that Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is necessary only after the first of the five times that the Kohen Gadol immerses himself on Yom Kipur]

36)[line 20]תרי קידושי אלבישה עביד להוTREI KIDUSHEI A'LEVISHAH AVID LEHU- The Chachamim are of the opinion that the Kohen Gadol washes his hands and feet both prior to removing the set of clothing that he is wearing and after dressing himself in the next set. Rebbi Meir maintains that the first Kidush is done following the removal of the first set of garments (Mishnah 34b). The Talmidim of Rav Papa understood that the reasoning of Rebbi Meir is that both of the times that the Kohen Gadol washes his hands and feet are related to that which he is dressing himself in a new set of garments.

37)[line 24]וּפָשַׁט"U'PASHAT", "V'RACHATZ", "V'LAVASH"- The terms "and he shall remove" and "and he shall dress," both referring to the changing of the Kohen Gadol's vestments on Yom ha'Kipurim, surround the term "and he shall wash," referring to that which the Kohen Gadol should wash his hands and feet (Vayikra 16: 23-24). Chazal interpret this to mean that the Kohan Gadol must wash his hands and feet together with both the removal of his current set of clothing as well as with the garbing of the new set.

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