[12a - 44 lines; 12b - 41 lines]

1a)[line 1]D'KERACHIM- of large cities [since many people pass through and use the synagogue, and it is therefore impossible to determine who all of the owners are]

b)[line 1]D'KEFARIM- of small villages [since the only people who use the synagogue are the villagers, and it is comparable to a house owned jointly by partners]

2)[line 2]"[ - , ; ] ""... ACHUZASCHEM "- "[When you shall come to Eretz Kena'an, which I am giving to you as an inheritance; and I have placed a mark of Tzara'as in the house of the land of] your inheritance" (Vayikra 14:34).

3)[line 9] YERUSHALAYIM LO NISCHALKAH L'SHEVATIM

(a)The Tana'im differ over whether the city of Yerushalayim was included in the division of Eretz Yisrael amongst the tribes. One opinion maintains that Yerushalayim belongs partly to Shevet Yehudah and partly to Shevet Binyamin, as the border between the portions of these two tribes cuts through the city.

(b)The other Tana rules that Yerushalayim Lo Nischalkah l'Shevatim. The entire city of Yerushalayim was not apportioned, but rather it belongs collectively to the entire nation.

4a)[line 13]ULAM- the Hall [in front of the Heichal. This is the largest and most ornate structure in the Beis ha'Mikdash, rising as high as a seventeen-story building.]

b)[line 13]HEICHAL- the Sanctuary [which contained the Menorah, the Shulchan, and the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores]

c)[line 13] BEIS KODSHEI HA'KODASHIM- the Holy of Holies [which was located at the far end of the Heichal. The Aron, which held the Luchos as well as other objects of Kedushah, lay within.]

5)[line 14]RETZU'A- lit. a strap; a thin strip of land

6)[line 17]L'VAL'AH- to swallow it

7)[line 17]"[ , , ;] -, .""[L'VINYAMIN AMAR ...] CHOFEF ALAV ... U'VEIN KESEIFAV SHACHEN."- "[To Binyamin he said, 'Beloved of HaSh-m, He shall surely dwell upon him;] He hovers over him all day long, and dwells between his shoulders" (Devarim 33:12). This verse depicts HaSh-m hovering over Binyamin. The Tana of this Beraisa, however, interprets it to be referring to Binyamin himself. He longs after the strip of land belonging to Yehudah upon which the Mizbe'ach is built, as if it is an itch he cannot scratch (Chafifah).

8)[line 18] USHPIZCHAN LA'GEVURAH- a host for the Almighty

9)[line 23] OROS KODSHIM- the hides of sacrifices [that are Kodshim Kalim, such as the different types of Shelamim that one offers at the time of the Regel (see Background to Pesachim 70:1,2), which belong to he who offers the Korban]

10)[line 24]BI'ZERO'A- by force

11)[line 25] ORACH AR'A L'MISHBAK INISH- it is gentlemanly conduct for a person to leave behind

12a)[line 25]GULFA- an earthenware pitcher

b)[line 25]MASHCHA- the hide [of an animal that he has slaughtered]

13)[line 27]"""LA'ACHUZAH"- This is a quote; see above, entry #2.

14)[line 29] BEIS AVOS- families within a Shevet

15)[line 31] YATZA ELU SHE'EIN MEYUCHADIM LO- to the exclusion of these, which are not designated for the use of an individual. From this statement it is clear that a synagogue, which is a public building, should not receive Tzara'as.

16)[line 32] MECHAVARTA KED'SHANYAN ME'IKARA- it is clear [that the correct answer is] as we answered originally

17)[line 33]PESHITA- it is clear that

18)[line 33]IRA- occurs

19)[line 34] TAMID SHEL SHACHAR (KORBAN TAMID)

(a)The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, is offered in the morning, and the second - called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5). The Korban Tamid is an Olah, and is therefore offered in its entirety upon the Mizbe'ach.

20)[line 34] MECHANCHIN OSO- they initiate him. Our Gemara understands that, as the special service of Yom Kipur may only be performed by the Kohen Gadol, he who performs it must have the status of a Kohen Gadol prior to doing so. Offering the morning Tamid in the special eight vestments worn only by a Kohen Gadol (see next entry) would suffice to initiate a Kohen as a Kohen Gadol.

21)[line 36] ?BAMEH MECHANCHIN OSO? (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)

(a)Every Kohen wears four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Migba'as (hat).

(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. These are the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead), Ephod (apron), Choshen (breastplate), and Me'il (robe).

(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).

(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a Pasuk (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.

(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kipur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim).

d) Our Gemara asks, if the first Avodah facing the understudy to the Kohen Gadol is part of the special service of Yom ha'Kipurim, then in what way can he distinguish himself as a Kohen Gadol before beginning the Avodah?

22)[line 38] AVNETO SHEL KOHEN GADOL, ZEH HU AVNETO SHEL KOHEN HEDYOT

(a)The Torah tells us that the Avnet (belt) normally worn by the Kohen Gadol as part of his usual eight garments contains Kil'ayim (a normally forbidden mixture of linen and wool). We are also notified that when he performs the special Avodah of Yom ha'Kipurim, then his belt consists of 100% linen. Nowhere, however, does the Torah specify what material(s) the Avnet of a Kohen Hedyot is woven from.

(b)There is a disagreement between two Amora'im as to what material is used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot. One of them maintains that a Kohen Hedyot wears a belt of linen, similar to that of the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur. The other argues that the Avnet of a Kohen Hedyot contains Kil'ayim, similar to the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol during the rest of the year.

(c)The terms used to refer to these two opinions are "the Avnet of the Kohen Gadol equals that of the Kohen Hedyot," or that it "does not equal the Avnet of the Kohen Hedyot." Rashi to our Gemara explains that the first opinion maintains that the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol during the year is similar to that of a Kohen Hedyot; they are both Kil'ayim. The other contends that the Kohen Hedyot wears a belt that is not Kil'ayim. According to Rashi in Chulin (138a), the opposite is true. The opinion that maintains that the two Avnetim are similar is comparing that of the Kohan Hedyot to the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur; they are both entirely linen. It is the other opinion who says that a Kohen Hedyot wears a belt made with Kil'ayim.

23)[line 42] MEHAPECH B'TZINORA- he should turn over [one of the limbs of the Tamid which are burning atop the Mizbe'ach] with a pronged instrument

24)[last line] CHAYAV MISAH- is liable to the death penalty [from Shamayim; from this is clear that such an action is considered Avodah]

12b----------------------------------------12b

25)[line 1]AVODASO- his performance [of the special Yom Kipur Avodah itself - which is only valid when performed by the Kohen Gadol]

26)[line 2]MESHICHASAN- that which they are anointed [with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:4)

27)[line 6]BUTZ- linen

28)[line 13] U'VEHANACH D'SHAVIN- and [the discussion centers around only] those [garments] which they both [wear]

29)[line 20]"[ , -] -; [ - ...]""[V'LAVASH HA'KOHEN MIDO VAD, U'MICHNESEI VAD] YILBASH AL BESARO, [V'HERIM ES HA'DESHEN ...]"- "[And the Kohen shall wear a linen tunic, and linen breeches] he shall wear upon his skin; [and he shall lift the ash...] (Vayikra 6:3). This verse describes the service of the Terumas ha'Deshen (see next entry).

30)[line 21] HARAMAS HA'DESHEN (TERUMAS HA'DESHEN)

(a)Every morning, a Kohen removes some of the ashes of the consumed sacrifices heaped upon the Mizbe'ach. He then places them southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside its ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approx. 10.5 inches) away from the ramp and 10 Amos from the foot of the ramp (Vayikra 6:3).

31)[line 27] ?TESHAMESH BAHEN KEDUSHAH KALAH?- can they then be used for a lighter - i.e., a less stringent - Kedushah? [We have a rule that Ma'alin ba'Kodesh v'Ein Moridin (see below, entry 37)!]

32)[line 28]SHECHAKIN- worn out [clothing as valid for the Avodah]]

33)[line 29]"[ - , - -,] .""[U'VA AHARON ...] V'HINICHAM SHAM"- "[And Aharon shall come to the Ohel Mo'ed, and remove his linen garments which he wore when he came to the Kodesh ha'Kodashim,] and he shall place them there" (Vayikra 16:23).

34)[line 30] SHE'TE'UNIN GEZIZAH- that they must be hidden away; i.e., they must be buried, and never used again

35)[line 33] KOL MITZVOS KEHUNAH GEDOLAH ALAV (MITZVOS KOHEN GADOL)

(a)There are a number of ways in which a Kohen Gadol is unique, even amongst other Kohanim. They are:

1.He may not become Tamei for any Mes, including his mother, father, (unmarried) sister, brother, son, daughter, and spouse;

2.He does not tear his clothing in mourning for a relative;

3.He does not let his hair grow long in mourning for a relative;

4.He must marry a virgin;

5.He wears eight vestments while performing the Avodah (see above, entry #21).

36)[line 40] MISHUM EIVAH- in order to prevent strife

37)[line 40] MA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'EIN MORIDIN

(a)Once a person or object attains a certain level of holiness, one may not subsequently lower its status. The only option available is to raise it to a higher level of Kedushah.

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