1) [line 6] U'MAH RA'ISA - but what did you see [that made you distinguish between the cases, such that we apply the word "v'Yibmah" to the case of the third brother who was born after the second brother performed Yibum on the first brother's wife, and the word "v'Lakchah" to the case of the ordinary Yavam who does Yibum and thereafter divorces his wife]
2) [line 6] SHADI HEITEIRA A'HEITEIRA - (lit. apply the permitted thing to the permitted thing) we apply the word "v'Lakchah" to the case of the ordinary Yavam who does Yibum and thereafter divorces his wife, such that she does not need Chalitzah
3) [line 20] SHENIYOS
(a) In addition to the forbidden relationships (Isurei Ervah) prohibited by the Torah and punishable with Kares (Vayikra 18:6-30, 20:10-22, et. al.), the Chachamim decreed to prohibit certain relatives who are permitted mid'Oraisa. This decree of Sheniyos (lit. "secondaries") was meant to distance a person from engaging in relationships that are prohibited by the Torah. Although the Chachamim lent severity to this Isur by showing hidden inferences to Sheniyos from various verses in the Torah (Yevamos 21a), nevertheless the prohibition of Sheniyos is only mid'Rabanan. Therefore, if a man betroths a Sheniyah his Kidushin is valid, and the resulting child is not a Mamzer as the child of an Ervah mid'Oraisa would be. If a Yevamah is a Sheniyah of the Yavam, she and her Tzarah (co-wife) must do Chalitzah and not Yibum.
(b) In some cases Sheniyos were prohibited only in a single generation, while in other cases they were prohibited in subsequent generations as well. For example, not only is one's mother's mother a Sheniyah, his mother's mother's mother is a Sheniyah as well; not only is one's son's daughter-in-law a Sheniyah, his son's son's daughter-in-law is a Sheniyah as well. The general rule is that if there is an Ervah mid'Oraisa in one generation (in the above example, one's mother or daughter-in-law) the associated Sheniyah was prohibited in all previous generations and subsequent generations as well; that is, the Sheniyah was prohibited "without a Hefsek" (RASHI 21a DH v'Eshes Achi ha'Av -- There are several exceptions to this rule; see Chart #6 to Yevamos 21a-22a and footnotes 2, 3.)
(c) There are those who prohibited Sheniyos based on the principle that "any relative who, as a female, is Asur as an Ervah, as a male his wife is Asur mid'Rabanan (i.e. a Sheniyah)." For example, since a man's daughter's daughter is prohibited to him, the Chachamim decreed that the daughter-in-law of his daughter is prohibited to him as a Sheniyah (GEMARA Yevamos 21b; see TOSFOS ibid. DH Lo Asru)
4) [line 22] NESINAH (THE NESINIM)
(a) In the times of Yehoshua, the Giv'onim (members of the Chivi nation, one of the seven nations whom the Jewish People were commanded to destroy upon entering Eretz Yisrael) came and presented themselves before Yehoshua as if they came from a far-off land. Since they claimed not to be residents of Eretz Yisrael, they requested to be converted and to make peace with the Jewish People. After Yehoshua agreed to accept them, it was discovered that they were one of the seven prohibited nations. Having already accepted them, Yehoshua did not want to break his oath and covenant with them (even though they tricked him and the oath was uttered in error) so as not to cause a Chilul HaSh-m. Yehoshua accepted them and appointed them to be woodchoppers and water drawers to supply the needs for the sacrificial service on the Mizbe'ach (Yehoshua 9:3-27). In the times of Moshe Rabeinu Giv'onim also came to be converted as they did in the times of Yehoshua, and Moshe also made them woodchoppers and water drawers (Yevamos 79a, based on Devarim 29:10). These people became known as "Nesinim," (from the root "Nasan," to give) since they were "given over" by Moshe and Yehoshua ["va'Yitenem..." - "And he appointed them..." (Yehoshua 9:27)] to perform the tasks of chopping wood and drawing water.
(b) The Nesinim are not permitted to marry someone who was born Jewish, just like Mamzerim. RASHI and TOSFOS (Kesuvos 29a and elsewhere) argue as to whether they are prohibited mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. We find that the Gemara (Yevamos 79a) states that Moshe Rabeinu "decreed" regarding the Nesinim of his generation, and Yehoshua extended the "decree" to last as long as the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash would stand. David ha'Melech later extended "the decree" to include all time, even if the Beis ha'Mikdash would be destroyed (because of the trait of cruelty that the Nesinim exhibited, which showed that they were not worthy of uniting with the descendants of Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov). According to Rashi, these decrees were prohibitions against marriage, and as such the prohibition against marrying Nesinim is an Isur mid'Rabanan. According to Tosfos, these decrees were appointments of servitude. The prohibition against marrying them, though, is mid'Oraisa, since the Torah commands against marrying the seven prohibited nations even if they convert to Judaism (Yevamos 76a).
5) [line 42] KADESH ATZMECHA BA'MUTAR LECHA - sanctify yourself through [abstention from] those things that are permitted to you
6) [line 43] KA'PASIK V'TANI - [the Tana] states categorically [that all widows are prohibited to a Kohen Gadol]
7) [last line] U'MAH RA'ISA - but what did you see [that made you apply the word "Yevimto" to Chayavei Lavim and not Chayavei Kerisus?]
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