[4a - 35 lines; 4b - 43 lines]
1)[line 1]"לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז [צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו.] גְּדִלִים תַּעֲשֶׂה-לָּךְ [עַל-אַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת כְּסוּתְךָ אֲשֶׁר תְּכַסֶּה-בָּהּ.]""LO SILBASH SHA'ATNEZ [TZEMER U'FISHTIM YACHDAV.] GEDILIM TA'ASEH LACH [AL ARBA NANFOS KESUSCHA ASHER TECHASEH BAH.]"- "Do not wear Sha'atnez (see next entry), [wool and linen together.] Make twined threads for yourself [on the four corners of your garment with which you cover yourself.]" (Devarim 22:11-12)
(a)Sha'atnez is the term for cloth woven from a prohibited mixture of wool and linen (Devarim 22:11 and Vayikra 19:19). Chazal explain that the word "Sha'atnez" is a contraction of the three words "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun), and "Noz."
(b)The Rishonim disagree over the meaning of the term "Noz":
1.RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) interpret Noz to mean "woven together".
2.TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shu'a Tavi v'Noz) understands that Noz implies that the threads are twisted. That which Sha'atnez is prohibited only when the strands of the wool and linen are woven together is derived from its description as "Yachdav" - "together."
(c)An additional question dealt with by the Rishonim is how many of these stages must be performed on the linen and wool together in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. RASHI (ibid.) maintains that the Torah forbids one to comb, spin, and weave wool and linen together. If they are joined after any of these processes are complete, then the resulting garment is not Sha'atnez mid'Oraisa. TOSFOS (ibid.) rules that Torah prohibition applies even to a case in which the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted separately, provided they are afterward joined by as few as two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with this assertion that any preparatory stages need not be carried out on the wool and linen together in order for one to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez.
3)[line 2]סמוכיםSEMUCHIM- that which a verse can reveal Halachos regarding a different verse written in juxtaposition
4)[line 3]"סְמוּכִים לָעַד לְעוֹלָם; עֲשׂוּיִם בֶּאֱמֶת וְיָשָׁר.""SEMUCHIM LA'AD L'OLAM; ASUYIM BE'EMES V'YASHAR."- "They are supported eternally and forever; done in truth and fairness." (Tehilim 111:8) - This verse refers to the "trustworthy ordinances" of HaSh-m - i.e., the Torah - mentioned in the previous verse. Our Gemara interprets the word "Semuchim" - "supported" - to mean "adjacent."
5)[line 6]מוכה שחיןMUKEH SHECHIN- one afflicted with boils
6)[line 6]אין חוסמין אותהEIN CHOSMIN OSAH- we do not seal her; i.e., we prevent the Yavam from performing Yibum if his Yevamah does not desire it
7)[line 7]"לֹא-תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ.""LO SACHSOM SHOR B'DISHO."- "Do not muzzle an ox while it is threshing." (Devarim 25:4)
8)[line 8]"כִּי-יֵשְׁבוּ אַחִים יַחְדָּו, [וּמֵת אַחַד מֵהֶם וּבֵן אֵין-לוֹ, לֹא-תִהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת-הַמֵּת הַחוּצָה לְאִישׁ זָר; יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ וּלְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וְיִבְּמָהּ.]""KI YESHVU ACHIM YACHDAV..."- "When brothers dwell together, [and one of them dies childless, the wife of the deceased should not marry a stranger from outside (of the family); her brother-in-law should come upon her [and take her for a wife, and perform Yibum with her.]" (Devarim 25:5)
9)[line 9]במשנה תורהMISHNEH TORAH- the Book of Devarim
10)[line 12]"מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה.""MECHASHEIFAH LO SECHAYEH."- "Do not allow a witch to live." (Shemos 22:17)
11)[line 15]סקילהSEKILAH- see Background to 2:15
12a)[line 17]אובOV- a necromancer who communicates with the deceased through placing a certain bone in his armpit and flapping his arms or moving about in a certain fashion. This action provokes the spirit with which he wishes to communicate to speak (Sanhedrin 65b).
b)[line 17]ידעוניYID'ONI- a necromancer who communicates with the deceased through placing the bone of a Yidu'a / Adnei ha'Sadeh (a creature defined by the Yerushalmi (Kil'ayim 8:5) as "a wild man of the fields") in his or her mouth
13)[line 18]להקיש להםL'HAKISH LA'HEM (DAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL)
(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed, Lo l'Lamed Al Atzmo Yatza Ela l'Lamed Al ha'Klal Kulo Yatza. This means that when a verse reiterates the Halachos of a specific example of a general rule that has already been taught, the reason for this is to reveal a teaching relevant to the entire category of Halachos. This rule can be applied in one of three possible ways:
1.If a Halachah not previously taught is included in the verse detailing the specific example, then this new teaching applies to the entire category.
2.If no new teaching is readily apparent, then Chazal search for that which may be revealed to us from the fact that one example is written separately. An example of this is the opinion of Rebbi Nasan regarding the prohibition against kindling a fire on Shabbos. Although this is included in the general prohibition against performing Melachah on Shabbos, it is nevertheless spelled out explicitly (Shemos 35:3). Rebbi Nasan maintains that this is l'Chalek - to teach that one need not perform all thirty-nine Melachos forbidden on Shabbos in order to be liable to punishment; the transgression of any one of them is sufficient.
3.If no new Halachah is apparent, then Chazal conclude that the reason why the example was singled out is to limit the category to those examples similar to specified example. This functions similar to a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal (see Background to Moed Katan 3:18).
14a)[line 20]אנוסת אביוANUSAS AVIV- a woman raped by his father
b)[line 21]מפותת אביוMEFUTAS AVIV- a woman seduced by his father
15)[line 24]"לֹא-יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת-אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו, וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִיו.""LO YIKACH ISH ES ESHES AVIV, V'LO YEGALEH KENAF AVIV"- "A man may not marry his father's wife, nor may he uncover his father's hem." (Devarim 23:1) - The second half of this verse is a euphemism that appears to restate the first half of the verse.
16)[line 26]עילויה דקראILAVEI D'KERA- that which is above the verse; i.e., the previous verse
17)[line 27]"וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה חֲמִשִּׁים כָּסֶף...""V'NASAN HA'ISH HA'SHOCHEV IMAH LA'AVI HA'NA'ARAH CHAMISHIM KESEF..." (ONES)
One who rapes a girl between the ages of three and twelve and a half (between twelve and twelve and a half according to Rebbi Meir; Kesuvos 29a) must pay a fine of fifty Shekalim to her father (Devarim 22:28). This is the equivalent of the dowry promised a Besulah (virgin) in her Kesuvah (marriage document). This fine does not include other the damages of Pegam (damage), Boshes (shame), and Tza'ar (pain) (Kesuvos 39a; see Background to Kidushin 3:20). In addition - assuming the girl is interested - he must marry her, and forgo the right to divorce her.
18)[line 31]שומרת יבםSHOMERES YAVAM- the wife of one's late brother who died childless [who is bound by Zikah and is waiting for either Yibum or Chalitzah]
19)[line 32]שני לאויןSHNEI LAVIN- two negative prohibitions. Aside from the one which the Chachamim understand this verse to be referring to, there is a negative prohibition forbidding a Yevamah from marrying anyone other than her late husband's brother (Devarim 25:5). As the Rishonim point out, there is actually a third prohibition as well: that which one is prohibited from marrying the wife of his father's brother (Vayikra 18:14). See also Insights.
20a)[line 33]מוכחMUCHACH- it is obvious [due to that which the verse is out of place]
b)[line 33]מופניMUFNI- [one of the words on the verse] is free [i.e., unnecessary, which alludes to that which one should derive Semuchin]
21)[line 34]עריותARAYOS- [the Parshah of] forbidden conjugal relations (Vayikra 18)
22)[line 4]פרשת ציציתPARSHAS TZTZIS- the Parshah of Tzitzis (Bamidbar 15:37-41; the third paragraph of Keri'as Shema)
23)[line 10]מוכרי כסותMOCHREI KESUS- those who sell clothing [containing Sha'atnez to Nochrim, and carry many articles on their back to the marketplace]
24)[line 13]נפיש הנייתהNAFISH HANIYASAH- one derives much benefit from it
25)[line 13]העלאהHA'ALA'AH- placing [Sha'atnez that is not clothing, such as a blanket] upon oneself
26)[line 15]צמר ופשתים למה ליTZEMER U'FISHTIM LAMAH LI?- why are the words, "wool and linen" necessary?
27)[line 18]ופרט לך הכתוב באחד מהן צמר ופשתיםU'FARAT LECHA HA'KASUV B'ECHAD ME'HEN TZEMER U'FISHTIM- and the Torah specified in one instance that it refers to [a garment of] wool and linen. This refers to Vayikra 13:47, which describes the type of garment that can be afflicted with Tzara'as (see Background to Moed Katan 7:35)
28)[line 24]תיתי שעטנז שעטנז מהעלאהTEISI SHA'ATNEZ SHA'ATNEZ ME'HA'ALA'AH- this refers to a Gezeirah Shavah; see Background to 3:1
29)[line 30]תכלתTECHELES- a greenish-blue dye produced by a mollusk called the Chilazon (possibly the snail murex trunculus)
30)[line 31]עמראAMRA- [dyed] wool
31)[line 32]מדשש כיתנא, תכלת עמרא הואMID'SHESH KISNA, TECHELES AMRA HU- from that which [the material termed] "Shesh" [used in the Bigdei Kehunah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 26:8)] is linen (Shemos 29:38), "Techeles" [used in the Bigdei Kehunah] must be [dyed] wool [since these were the only two types of fabric used in the Bigdei Kehunah (implication of Yechezkel 44:17)]
32)[line 34]מין כנףMIN KANAF- [which implies that the treads of Tzitzis must be spun from] the [same] material as the corner [of the garment to which they are attached]
33)[line 35]צמר ופשתיםTZEMER U'FISHTIM- [threads of Tzitzis made from] wool and linen
34)[line 36]שאר מינין במינן פוטריןSHE'AR MININ B'MINAN POTRIN- garments of other materials may have threads spun from that same material. Since according to Rava one need not hang woolen Tzitzis threads from a linen garment, one cannot derive from the Parshah of Tzitzis that Aseh Docheh Lo Sa'aseh without doing do from the juxtaposition of Tzitzis and Sha'atnez.
35)[line 37]לית ליה דרבאLEIS LEI D'RAVA- does not agree with Rava [as they maintain that only woolen and linen garments require Tzitzis]
36)[line 41]צבעיהTZAV'EI- dye it [with Techeles]