[30a -51 lines; 30b - 47 lines]
1)[line 1]מחגהME'CHAGAH- Rebbi Meir understands that the word "me'Chagah" in the verse hints to the fact that the period during which one may not wash clothing or take a haircut begins on Rosh Chodesh Av. Rosh Chodesh is referred to as a festival in Eichah 1:15 (see Background to 29:9).
2)[line 4]ותרוייהו לקולאTARVAIHU L'KULA- both [rulings] apply leniently [only, such that the period during which one may not wash clothing or take a haircut does not begin until the first day of the week during which Tish'ah b'Av falls and lasts only through Tish'ah b'Av itself]
3)[line 10]משש שעות ולמעלהMI'SHESH SHA'OS UL'MA'ALAH- from after six [Halachic] hours [into the day (when each "hour" is one twelfth of the day); i.e., midday]
4)[line 12]בסעודה המפסיק בהSE'UDAH HA'MAFSIK BAH- the last meal one intends to eat before a fast
5)[line 13]ותרוייהו לקולאTARVAIHU L'KULA- both [rulings] apply leniently [only, such that one may not eat two cooked dishes only if it is the last meal he intends to eat, and it is after midday]
6)[line 26]ישנהYESHANEH- he should change
7)[line 27]יאכל מין אחדYOCHAL MIN (ECHAD) [ACHER]- he should eat a different dish
8a)[line 36]ליטראLITRA- a Roman Libra (a measure of weight equal to a Log; see next entry)
b)[line 37]לוגLOG- a measurement of volume equal to approximately 10.14, 11.67, or 20.29 ounces, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
9a)[line 39]צנוןTZENON- a radish
b)[line 39]מליחMELI'ACH- salted [fish or meat]
10a)[line 39]כל שהוא משום תשעה באבKOL SHE'HU MI'SHUM TISH'AH B'AV- any [meal eaten] because of [the imminent arrival of] Tish'ah b'Av (i.e., the Se'udah ha'Mafsik Bah)
b)[line 40]כל שאינו משום תשעה באבKOL SHE'EINO MI'SHUM TISH'AH B'AV- any [meal eaten] for any reason other than [the imminent arrival of] Tish'ah b'Av [such as a meal eaten earlier in the day or a meal eaten immediately prior to any other fast]
11)[line 42]באבלAVEL (AVEILUS: SHIV'AH U'SHELOSHIM)
(a)One who loses his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse is obligated to bury his dead relative and then observe specific laws of mourning. Until the burial, one has the status of an Onen (see Background to Yoma 13:23). After the burial, his status changes to that of an Avel.
(b)For the following twelve months, an Avel may not buy new clothing nor attend weddings or other celebrations. For the first thirty days (Sheloshim), in addition to these restrictions, he may not receive a haircut nor iron his clothing. Additionally, for the first seven days (Shiv'ah), he must refrain from bathing, washing his clothing, anointing himself with oils, and wearing leather shoes.
(c)Our Gemara compares the Halachos governing everyone on Tish'ah b'Av to those governing an Avel sitting Shiv'ah.
12)[line 42]אסור באכילה ובשתיהASUR BA'ACHILAH U'SHESIYAH- Clearly, an Avel may eat and drink during the seven days of Shiv'ah. The Beraisa lists first prohibitions that are unique to Tish'ah b'Av before moving on to those that are common to both.
13)[line 42]ובסיכהSICHAH- anointing [with oil or cream]
14)[line 42]ובנעילת הסנדלNE'ILAS HA'SANDAL- wearing [leather] shoes
15)[line 42]ובתשמיש המטהTASHMISH HA'MITAH- marital relations
16)[line 43]ולשנותLI'SHNOS- to learn
17a)[line 43]ובהלכותHALACHOS- the Halachic discussions of the Gemara
b)[line 43]ובאגדותAGADOS- the homiletic discussions of the Gemara
18)[line 44]בקינותKINOS- lamentations [recited on Tish'ah b'Av]
19)[line 44]ובדברים הרעים שבירמיהDEVARIM HA'RA'IM SHEB'YIRMEYAH- the saddening portions of Yirmeyah
20)[line 44]"פקודי ה' ישרים משמחי לב מצות ה' ברה מאירת עינים""PIKUDEI HASH-M YESHARIM MESAMCHEI LEV MITZVAS HASH-M BARAH ME'IRAS EINAYIM" - "The commandments of HaSh-m are straight, they gladden the heart; the Mitzvos of HaSh-m are clear, they enlighten the eyes." (Tehilim 19:9) (THE FLAWLESS TORAH)
(a)David ha'Melech draws a distinction here between the sun, with all its wonderful qualities, and the Torah. The sun is a physical, finite being, and its qualities are therefore limited. The Torah, on the other hand, is both spiritual and infinite. Consequently, it is perfect.
(b)The Metzudas David explains how the heat of the sun, for all the sun's goodness, sometimes causes illness, takes a person out of his mind, makes a person fell downcast, and causes him to go blind. In contrast, the Torah is perfect and protects a person's health; it attests to the spiritual level of those who study it and it makes them wise; its Mitzvos are both straight and crystal-clear and they gladden the heart and enable the eyes to see.
(c)Finally, the sun is sometimes clouded over and is not always visible, and when it is seen in one part of the world, the other side is dark. The Torah, which is pure and true, shines constantly and all its sections work together in perfect harmony.
(c)Indeed, as the verse concludes, nothing in this physical world compares to it, for it is more precious than gold and sweeter than honey.
21)[line 45]פקודי ה'PIKUDEI HASH-M- the orders of HaSh-m
22)[line 48]ויין מגתוYAYIN MI'GITO- [newly pressed] wine from the winepress
23)[line 48]עד כמה?AD KAMAH?- for how long [must the meat be salted before one is permitted to eat it during the Se'udah ha'Mafsik Bah]?
24)[line 49]כל זמן (שאינו) [שהוא] כשלמים ויין מגתוKOL ZMAN (SHE'EINO) [SHE'HU] K'SHELAMIM (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Vayikra 1:2). Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim which are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered anywhere in the Azarah (and are not limited to the northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner places his hands on the head of his animal and leans on it with all of his might (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is sprinkled on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (meal offerings consisting of flour, oil, and a wine libation) are brought along with the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach, and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine required depends upon the animal offered (see Bamidbar ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim are given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban are offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban within the borders of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion, and may be eaten for two days and the intervening night.
(d)In order to preserve the meat of a Shelamim for two days and a night, it was salted. Yet, the Torah refers to it as "Basar" even on the third day after it was offered (Vayikra 7:18). From this it is apparent that meat salted for this long is still considered meat. If it is salted for any longer than this, it may be eaten during the Se'udah ha'Mafsik Bah. TOSFOS (DH v'Af Al Gav) points out that nowadays, when we are accustomed to eating such meat regularly, it is no longer permitted during the Se'udah ha'Mafsik Bah.
25)[line 50]תוססTOSES- bubbles in fermentation
It is prohibited mid'Rabanan to consume uncovered water, wine, milk, honey, or fish brine that was left unattended. This is because of the possibility that a poisonous snake drank from the water, leaving behind a residue of poison (See RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach u'Shemiras ha'Nefesh 11:5-16). This prohibition does not apply to wine during the first three days of its fermentation, since one may assume that the fermentation would scare away a snake.
27)[last line]פת חריבהPAS CHAREIVAH- dry bread
28)[line 1]בין תנור לכירייםBEIN TANUR L'CHIRAYIM- between the oven and the stove [which was the dirtiest part of the house]
29)[line 1]קיתוןKITON- a pitcher
30)[line 2]שמתו מוטל לפניוSHE'MESO MUTAL L'FANAV- whose close relative is lying dead before him
31)[line 3]לעשות מלאכהLA'ASOS MELACHAH- to engage in profitable enterprise [that will have the effect of distracting one from mourning]
32)[line 8]שיתענהSHE'YIS'ANEH- to afflict himself
33)[line 10]ביום הכפוריםB'YOM HA'KIPURIM- on Yom ha'Kipurim (which is mid'Oraisa)
34)[line 11]אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולםEINO RO'EH SIMAN BERACHAH L'OLAM- will not realize any profit from (a) that which he worked upon on Tish'ah b'Av (RASHI, ROSH); (b) the type of enterprise that he engaged in on Tish'ah b'Av (TOSFOS DH Kol)
35)[line 14]"שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה" "SIMCHU ES YERUSHALAYIM V'GILU BAH KOL OHAVEHA, SISU ITAH MASOS KOL HA'MIS'ABLIM ALEHA" - "Be happy with Yerushalayim and rejoice with it all those who love it; revel with it all those who mourn for it." (Yeshayah 66:10) (CONDITIONAL REJOICING)
Not everyone will rejoice when Mashi'ach comes and the Beis ha'Mikdash is rebuilt. It is only those who love Yerushalayim, who feel depressed by her absence and who mourn for her when she is absent, who will truly rejoice when they are reunited with her.
36)[line 20]"ולא ישכבו את גבורים נפלים מערלים אשר ירדו שאול בכלי מלחמתם ויתנו את חרבותם תחת ראשיהם ותהי עונתם על עצמותם כי חתית גבורים בארץ חיים""V'LO YISHKEVU ES GIBORIM NOFLIM ME'ARELIM ASHER YARDU SHE'OL BI'CHLEI MILCHAMASAM VA'YITNU ES CHARVOSAM TACHAS ROSHEIHEM VA'TEHI AVANOSOM AL ATZMOSAM KI CHITIS GIBORIM B'ERETZ CHAYIM" - "And they will not lie with the mighty ones, they are worse than the uncircumcised ones who went down to the grave with their weapons, and whose swords were placed under their heads, because they wrought havoc in the land of the living." (Yechezkel 32:27) (EGYPT AND EILAM, MESHECH AND TUVAL)
(a)The Navi is informing us, says the Metzudas David, that these nations were all destined to fall by the sword and land in a communal grave (like an army that dies in battle) together with Assyria, who exiled the Ten Tribes. The first two assisted Nevuchadnetzar when he fought against Yerushalayim, and the latter two were either in the same war, or were with Assyria, or were during the time of the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)These nations are worse than the warriors who die on their deathbeds and whose swords are buried with them as a sign that they did not fall in battle, and their deaths by the sword fail to atone for them, since they fought against Yisrael and died without doing Teshuvah. Therefore, they will die with their sins still intact.
37a)[line 23]עוברותUBEROS- pregnant women
b)[line 23]ומניקותMEINIKOS- nursing mothers
38)[line 30]כתנא דידןTANA DIDAN- our Tana, the Tana quoted in our Mishnah [who disagrees with Rebbi Yehudah]
39)[line 37]שהותרו שבטים לבוא זה בזהSHE'HUTRU SHEVATIM LA'VO ZEH BA'ZEH (BNOS TZELAFCHAD)
(a)HaSh-m commanded Moshe Rabeinu to divide the portion allotted to each Shevet in Eretz Yisrael into individual portions, according to the population of that Shevet in the desert. That original portion was to remain in the family from that point onward (Bamidbar 26:52-56).
(b)Tzelafchad ben Chefer of Shevet Menasheh had perished in the desert. He had five daughters but no sons. His daughters came to Moshe Rabeinu with a complaint: "Why should the name of our father be lessened among his family [just] because he has no son? Grant us an inheritance along with our father's brothers!" (Bamidbar 27:4). HaSh-m acceded to this request and explained that if one has no sons, then his inheritance passes to his daughters. If he has no daughters, it passes to his brothers. Next in line are his father's brothers. The inheritance always passes to his closest relative, defined as one related to him patrilineally. If his father has no sons, then his paternal grandfather's sons receive it, and so on and so forth (Bava Basra 115a). We have a tradition that no Shevet will ever disappear entirely; therefore, this system generally relocates the portion of land in question within the Shevet.
(c)The exception to this rule is when one's daughter inherits his land. Since her husband and sons inherit her, her father's land would pass from the Shevet. Due to this concern, HaSh-m commanded that the daughters of Tzelafchad marry only within their own Shevet of Menasheh.
(d)This condition, however, applied to that generation only. Our Gemara explains that from the fifteenth of Av and onward, daughters who received their father's inheritance were permitted to marry whomever they wished, even if he was from a Shevet other than their own.
40)[line 38]"זה הדבר אשר צוה ה' לבנות צלפחד לאמר לטוב בעיניהם תהיינה לנשים אך למשפחת מטה אביהם תהיינה לנשים""ZEH HA'DAVAR ASHER TZIVAH HASH-M, LI'VENOS TZELAFCHAD LA'TOV B'ENEIHEN TIHEYENAH L'NASHIM, ACH L'MISHPACHAS MATEI AVIHEM TIHEYENAH L'NASHIM" - "This is what you shall command the daughters of Tzelafchad, to whoever is good in their eyes they shall get married, only to a family of the tribe of their fathers they shall get married." (Bamidbar 36:6) (SPECIAL CONCESSION FOR TZELAFCHAD'S DAUGHTERS)
(a)Based on the first statement in the verse, Rav Yehudah in the name of Shmuel in Bava Basra (120a) teaches that the daughters of Tzelafchad were not bound by the prohibition of Hasavas Nachalah (moving the inheritance from one tribe to another) that applied to all the other women of that generation. The second statement (to marry someone from their tribe) was given in the form of good advice, but was not obligatory.
(b)The fact that all of these righteous sisters not only married men from their own tribe, but also men from their own immediate family, was therefore a dual merit for them.
(c)Interestingly, Rav Yehudah in the name of Shmuel is the one who makes the statement, "Yom she'Hutru Shevatim...," and his source is the very verse under discussion (even though, according to his opinion, the daughters of Tzelafchad themselves were not included in the prohibition.
41)[line 40]שהותר שבט בנימן לבוא בקהלSHE'HUTAR SHEVET BINYAMIN LA'VO B'KAHAL (PILEGESH B'GIV'AH)
(a)A certain Levi was passing through Giv'ah, a city in the portion of Binyamin, along with his concubine. At first, they were refused lodging. When one man did finally grant them a place to stay, residents of the city demanded that he hand over his guest for sinful purposes. Their host refused. In order to both appease the mob and spare the daughter if their host, the Levi felt forced to surrender his concubine. She was abused the entire night, and by morning she was dead. Incensed, the Levi dissected her dead body and sent her limbs to the other Shevatim in protest. A civil war ensued.
(b)HaSh-m, however, caused Bnei Yisrael to incur huge losses in the first two battles of the war because of various sins of lack of faith, first and foremost their unwillingness to avenge the honor of HaSh-m regarding Pesel Michah (the idol constructed by Michah - see Shoftim 17-18). After they repented, He let them vanquish Binyamin to the extent that only six hundred men remained from the entire tribe of Binyamin.
(c)Still angry that Binyamin had demonstrated an unwillingness to root out the evil in their midst, Bnei Yisrael gathered in Mitzpah and swore that they would not give their daughters as wives to anyone who remained from the Shevet.
(b)Afterward, the other Shevatim regretted their oath and sought to find ways to help the remaining members of Binyamin rebuild their Shevet. One way out of their bind, as described in our Gemara, was that although they swore not to give their daughters as wives, that oath bound only those took it - not to their children. Another plan hatched by Klal Yisrael was to look the other way while the remaining men of Binyamin seized wives for themselves. Toward this end, they made certain eligible women available for Binyamin to carry away (Shoftim 19-21).
42)[line 41]"ואיש ישראל נשבע במצפה לאמר איש ממנו לא יתן בתו לבנימן לאשה""V'ISH YISRAEL NISHBA BA'MITZPAH LEIMOR, ISH MIMENU LO YITEN BITO L'VINYAMIN L'ISHAH" - "And the men of Yisrael swore in Mitzpah saying, 'No man from among us will give his daughter to Binyamin as a wife.'" (Shoftim 21:1) (THE CONCUBINE OF GIV'AH)
(a)This verse follows the shocking episode of the mass rape of the concubine of a visitor to Giv'ah in Binyamin, which caused the poor woman's death. The other tribes gathered a large army and encamped in Mitzpah. First they demanded that the culprits be handed over to be duly punished, but the men of Binyamin refused and mobilized their own army in Giv'ah to take on the much larger army of Yisrael.
(b)Eventually, Yisrael decimated Binyamin, though not before they had lost many of their men in the first two battles. Before going to war, they swore not to give their daughters to Binyamin. Later, however, when they saw how crucial the issue was, they found a Heter to rescind their oath, allowing their children to give their daughters to Binyamin, saving Binyamin from virtual extinction. (See Background to Yevamos 60:13a.) That Heter, as the Gemara explains, took place on the fifteenth of Av.
(c)See Background to Gitin 7:24.
43)[line 42]במצפהMITZPAH- lit. "lookout"; a city on a high peak to the north of Yerushalayim (identified with either present-day Tel A-Natzbah or Nebi Samuel). Located there were a Mizbe'ach and a synagogue, and it was therefore perfectly suited as a place for assembly and prayer (RADAK to Shmuel I 7:5).
44)[line 43]ממנו ולא מבנינוMI'MENU V'LO MI'BANEINU- "from [amongst] us" and not from [amongst] our children
45)[line 43]שכלו בו מתי מדברSHE'KALU BO MESEI MIDBAR- that [the generation] in the desert [who believed the spies' report on Eretz Yisrael] ceased to die (see Insights)
46)[line 44]לא היה דבור עם משהLO HAYAH DIBUR IM MOSHE- [HaSh-m] did not speak to Moshe [with the same degree of intimacy that he had prior to the sin of the spies]
47)[line 45]"ויהי כאשר תמו כל אנשי המלחמה למות מקרב העם""VA'YEHI KA'ASHER TAMU KOL ANSHEI HA'MILCHAMAH LAMUS VA'YEDABER MI'KEREV HA'AM" - "And it was when all the men of war had finished dying from amidst the people." (Devarim 2:16) (SPEAKING TO MOSHE WITH LOVE AND AFFECTION)
(a)HaSh-m did speak to Moshe during the thirty-eight years that Yisrael were in disgrace, as it were, but only softly (using the term "va'Yomer" rather than "va'Yedaber" as man to man, keva'Yachol). This verse was said immediately after the last of those who were destined to die had died, and Yisrael were restored to their former level of communion with HaSh-m. As a result, Moshe, too, was restored to his former level of leadership, and HaSh-m spoke to him with the Lashon of Dibur, a sign that HaSh-m's love and affection had reverted to what it had been before.
48)[line 46]הושע בן אלהHOSHE'A BEN EILAH- the last king of Yisrael, he reigned from 3186-3205. He was a wicked king, although - as our Gemara points out - he did rectify the wrong perpetuated by Yerav'am (see Background to 28:11).
49)[line 46]פרוסדיות(PERUSDIYOS) [PERUZDA'OS]- guards
50)[last line]ירבעם בן נבטYERAV'AM BEN NEVAT- see Background to 28:11
51)[last line]יעלו ישראל לרגלYA'ALU YISRAEL L'REGEL- see Background to 28:12