ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) We have already learned that Rebbi Yosi exempts someone who carried his Lulav into the street on the first day of Sukos that fell on Shabbos. Abaye inform us that he will still be Chayav however - if he had already fulfilled the Mitzvah previously (since then, he has no justifiable reason to be busy with the Mitzvah - which is the reason that Rebbi Yosi exempts him from a Chatas).
(b) According to Abaye, we ask - when will one ever be Patur, seeing as, the moment one picks up the Lulav, he has already fulfilled the Mitzvah.
(c) Abaye therefore establishes Rebbi Yosi - where one picked up the Lulav (or the Esrog) upside down, in which case he will not yet have been Yotzei.
(d) According to Rava, Rebbi Yosi is speaking (even where he carried the Lulav the right way, but) where he carried it inside a jar. When he ruled earlier that carrying via a vessel is nevertheless considered carrying - that is only when he carries it in a respectable manner (such as, inside a cloth), but not when it is degrading (such as inside a vessel).
(a) The Kohanim made Melikah (slaughtering a Korban ha'Of by pinching its neck) on ...
1. ... the Olas ha'Of - on the south-eastern corner.
2. ... the Chatas ha'Of - on the south-western corner.
(b) Rav Huna says that, according to Rebbi Yosi, if a Kohen found an Olas ha'Of and ate it, thinking it was a Chatas ha'Of, he is Patur. This is possible (in spite of what we just said) - because sometimes, when there were a lot of Olos ha'Of, they would take the excess birds to the south-western corner and perform Melikah there (in the same location as the Chata'os ha'Of, except that the blood of the Olah was sprinkled above the red thread, and that of the Chatas, below).
(c) Rav Huna is teaching us here - that Rebbi Yosi does not only exempt the sinner from a Chatas if the sinner actually performed a Mitzvah (such as taking the Lulav), but even if he did not (such as eating an Olas ha'Of).
(d) And when Rebbi Yosi says in a Beraisa that someone who Shechts a Tamid that was not inspected on Shabbos, thinking that it was, is Chayav - he speaks when he carelessly took the animal from a room that contained animals that had not been inspected. This does not fall under the category of 'erring by a Devar Mitzvah' (which is close to an O'nes), of which Rav Huna is speaking.
(a) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah permits a woman to receive the Lulav from her husband or son on Shabbos, and to return it to water. Specifically 'a woman' - to teach us that, even though she is not obligated to fulfill the Mitzvah of Lulav, the Lulav is not considered Muktzeh for her (seeing as it is fit for men).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah rules that on Shabbos one may only return the Lulav to the water where it was previously; on Yom-Tov one is even permitted to add water, whereas on Chol ha'Mo'ed one may (and one even should) change the water, in order to keep it fresh.
(c) A small child is obligated to perform the Mitzvah Lulav - as soon as he knows how to shake it properly.
(a) The Beraisa discusses the stage when a child becomes Chayav to perform various Mitzvos. The Tana obligates a father to buy his son a Talis Gadol) - as soon as he knows how to wrap himself in it.
(b) As soon as his son reaches the stage where he is able ...
1. ... to lay Tefilin - his father should buy him Tefilin.
2. ... to speak - he should teach him Torah and "Shema Yisrael ... ".
(c) Rav Hamnuna interprets 'Torah' in this context - as the Pasuk "Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe ... ".
(a) If he is old enough to guard himself from becoming Tamei, one need not worry about Tum'ah when his body touches Taharos. 'Lishmor Yadav' means - that even if the child does know how to guard his body from Tum'ah, he is still not trusted to keep his hands Tahor (one of the eighteen decrees of Beis Shamai in the first Perek of Shabbos, which renders hands Tamei the moment one does guard them from Tum'ah) ...
(b) ... because this entails guarding his hands against anything that renders them Tamei (until he knows how to guard them too, and to wash them whenever he wants to touch Taharos).
(c) The moment the child knows ...
1. ... whether he became Tamei or not (and is able to state when he doesn't know) - we will apply the principle 'Safek Tum'ah bi'Reshus ha'Yachid (and he says that he doesn't know) Tamei, bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, Tahor' (Otherwise, every Safek will be Tahor, even in the Reshus ha'Yachid - Tosfos DH 'ha'Yode'a Lisha'el').
2. ... how to Duchen (if he is a Kohen) - he becomes entitled to receive a portion of Terumah in the granary.
(a) The moment he knows how to Shecht, says the Tana, one may eat from his Shechitah. Seeing as a Katan is presumably not an expert in Hilchos Shechitah, Rav establishes the Beraisa - where a grown-up stands over him and observes his Shechitah from beginning to end (see also Tosfos DH 've'ha'Yode'a').
(b) The Tana also rules that from the moment a Katan is able to eat a k'Zayis of corn - one must keep at least four Amos away from his feces and from his urine, in order to recite the Shema or Daven the Amidah.
(c) 'Corn' in this context, refers to wheat or any of the other five species of grain e able to eat the k'Zayis of wheat-bread - which he must be able to eat within the time-span of a 'Kedei Achilas Pras' (the time it takes to eat a loaf of four k'Beitzim); otherwise, the mouthfuls that he swallows will not combine to form a k'Zayis.
(d) We learn from the Pasuk "v'Yosif Da'as Yosif Mach'ov" - that one must keep away from his feces of a grown-up, even if he cannot eat a k'Zayis of wheat-bread within a 'Kedei Achilas Pras.
(a) According to the Tana Kama - as soon as a child is able to eat a k'Zayis of roasted meat, he can be included in the group to eat the Korban Pesach.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah says - only when he is able to differentiate between what is edible and what is not (i.e. when he knows to throw away the pebbles and take the nuts).
HADRAN ALACH, LULAV HA'GAZUL
PEREK LULAV VA'ARAVAH
(a) Our Mishnah learns 'Lulav va'Aravah Shishah v'Shiv'ah'. 'va'Aravah' refers to - the Mitzvah of Aravah that was performed by the Kohanim in the Beis Hamikdash (as will be discussed later).
(b) We complete whole Hallel throughout Sukos, but not throughout Pesach - because the Korban Musaf differs on each day of Sukos, which it does not on Pesach.
(c) The Mitzvah of Simchah applies all eight days - comprising eating the meat of Korban Shelamim.
(d) The Mitzvah of Sukah applies for seven days - and so does that of Nisuch ha'Mayim (although they are not necessarily the same set of seven days).
(a) The Mishnah continues 'ha'Chalil Chamishah v'Shiv'ah'. 'Chalil' refers - to the flute (and the many other instruments) that are played during the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'eivah - and which will be discussed in the last Perek).
(b) It is played on five days - when Shabbos falls on Chol ha'Mo'ed (since the Isur of playing instruments over-rides neither Shabbos nor Yom-Tov), and on six - when Shabbos falls on Yom-Tov.
1. The Lulav was taken seven days - when the first day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, and six days - when Shabbos fell on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
2. The Aravah was taken seven days - when the seventh day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, and six days - when Shabbos fell on any of the other days.
(a) When the first day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, they would take their Lulavim to the Har ha'Bayis, and give them to the Shamashim - who would arrange them on the roof of the covered seating area there. The following morning, the Shamashim would throw them to the people, and everybody would take one.
(b) They circumvented the problem of using someone else's Lulav on the first day - by teaching everyone to say that he gave his Lulav as a gift to whoever received it.
(c) To avoid the inevitable pushing - the elderly men would place their Lulavim in a designated room.
(d) When people began snatching Lulavim from one another and even broke out into fist-fights - Chazal decreed that, when the first day fell on Shabbos, they should rather take their Lulavim at home.