ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) Eating vessels says Rava, must be removed from the Sukah once one has finished with them - whereas drinking-vessels such as cups, may remain in the Sukah (because they do not tend to become quite so dirty).
(b) As for earthenware jars and wooden buckets - they should not be brought into the Sukah in the first place (because they are ugly and cheap-looking).
(c) Oil-lamps and Shabbos candles should be brought inside a large Sukah, but should remain outside a small one - because of the danger that they may set the Sukah alight.
(a) If the rain is sufficiently heavy to spoil a bean-stew (which spoils easily), even though that is not what he is eating - one is permitted to leave the Sukah.
(b) When bits of Sechach began falling on to his food, Rav Yosef ordered his things to be moved into the house - but surely, asked Abaye, that is not as uncomfortable as rain falling into one's food, which is the minimum requirement for leaving the Sukah!?
(c) Rav Yosef replied that he was particularly finicky about such things - and that the Shi'ur Mitzta'er given by Chazal that applied to most people, did not apply to him.
(a) Assuming that one moved into the house to continue ...
1. ... eating - he is obligated to return to the Sukah only after he has concluded his meal.
2. ... sleeping, then he does not need to move back until a. he wakes up, and b. dawn-break.
(b) 'Ad she'Ya'or' with an 'Ayin' means - until one wakes up, and 'Ad she'Ya'or' with an 'Alef' - until the sun shines.
(c) The problem with the Beraisa, which reads 'Ad she'Ya'or (with an Alef) v'Ya'aleh Amud ha'Shachar' is - that the phrase is contradictory in terms, since the sun shines (Hanetz ha'Chamah) much later than dawn-break (Amud ha'Shachar).
(d) We solve the problem - by changing the 'Alef 'of 'Ya'or' to an 'Ayin' (which no longer clashes with 've'Ya'aleh Amud ha'Shachar').
(a) Our Mishnah speaks about a slave diluting a cup of wine for his master, adding 'he spilt the jar of water'. If 'he' referred to the slave - then the Mishnah would mean that he was clumsy and spilt the water that he was pouring into the wine to dilute.
(b) What the Mishnah really means however - is that the master rejected his slaves service and threw the water back at him (Note: the Gra explains that wine symbolizes Hash-m's Midas ha'Din, and water, His Midas Rachamim. The parable teaches us that, when it rains on Sukos, Hash-m declines to dilute His harsh judgment from Yom Kippur, but wants it to remain intact; so He rejects our Avodah on Sukos - by throwing rain at us, forcing us out of our Sukah, whose purpose is to sweeten the Midas ha'Din.)
(a) When the sun is smitten (i.e. when it changes color), then it is a bad omen for the world. The Beraisa compares it - to a King who placed a lantern in the banquet-hall, to illuminate the feast that he had arranged for his servants. But when they angered him, he ordered the lantern to be removed.
(b) If the luminaries (the moon and the stars) are smitten, says Rebbi Meir, it is particularly ominous for Yisrael - because they are the ones who throughout history, have suffered the most.
(c) He compares it - to a teacher who entered the class-room with a strap. Which pupil is the one to be afraid, if not the one who receives lashes each day?!
(d) Another Beraisa make a distinction between the smiting of the sun - which is a bad omen for the nations of the world (who count by the sun), and that of the moon - which is a bad omen for Yisrael (who count by the moon).
(a) According to the Tana of the second Beraisa, the people of ...
1. ... the east will need to be afraid - if the sun is smitten in the morning (when it is in the east).
2. ... the west will need to be afraid - if the sun is smitten in the evening (when the sun is in the west)
3. ... the entire world will need to be afraid - if the sun is smitten in the middle of the day (when the sun is in the middle of the sky).
(b) If the sun turns ...
1. ... red - they must fear death by the sword.
2. ... dark - they must fear death by starvation.
(c) According to the Tana Kama, if it is smitten as it ...
1. ... sets - it is a sign that the punishment will be delayed (just as the sun was only smitten at the end of the day).
2. ... rises - that it will descend upon them swiftly (just as it was smitten as soon as it rose).
(d) Yesh Omrim say the opposite (because at the end of the day there is little time left for it to shine, whereas at the beginning of the day, there is still a whole day ahead of it).
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Bo "u've'Chol Elohei Mitzrayim E'eseh Shefatim ... " - that whenever a nation is smitten, its god is smitten too.
(b) According to this Tana - when the sun is smitten, as long as Yisrael are doing the will of Hash-m, they have no reason to fear (as Yirmeyahu ha'Navi has taught).
(c) The significance of all these sayings here is - the fact that they all deal with bad omens, which render them similar to rain on Sukos.
(a) In a third Beraisa, the Tana informs us that the sun is smitten for any one of four reasons: for that to happen ...
1. ... an Av Beis-Din who died - would have not to have been properly eulogized.
2. ... a betrothed girl - would have had to have been raped in the city and nobody paid heed to her cries.
(b) The third reason is the sin of homosexuality and the fourth - if two brothers were killed at one and the same time (though the significance of this is unclear).
(c) The moon and the stars too, are smitten for any one of four reasons: Because of people who forge documents, because of false witnesses - because of people who rear small animals in Eretz Yisrael (they destroy the land, because they cannot guard them against grazing in other peoples' fields), and because of people who cut down good fruit-trees.
(a) There are also four reasons for the fact that the property of wealthy Jews is confiscated by the government: Because they retain paid documents (i.e. they fail to destroy them), because they lent money on interest - because, due to their wealth, they have the power to rebuke but fail to do so and because they undertake in public to give Tzedakah and then renege on their promise.
(b) And there are four reasons for the fact that the property of wealthy Jews declines: 1. Because they fail to pay their workers on time, 2. Because they do not pay them at all, 3. because they place their own obligations at the doors of others - and 4. because they are conceited.
(c) The Pasuk in Tehilim writes that people who are humble - will inherit the land and will delight in an abundance of peace.
HADRAN ALACH, HA'YASHEN
PEREK LULAV HA'GAZUL
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "u'Lekachtem Lachem ba'Yom ha'Rishon" - that, on the first day of Sukos, one is not Yotzei with a stolen Lulav.
(b) A dry Lulav is Pasul - because it is not Hadar (which all four the species need to be [as we shall see later]).
(c) A Lulav that has been picked from a tree that was worshipped and one that came from an Ir ha'Nidachas (a city that has to be destroyed because all its inhabitants worshipped idols) are Pasul - the latter, because it has to be burned, and, seeing as whatever has to be burned is considered as if it had already been burned, in which case it is lacking in Shi'ur.
(d) The Mishnah invalidates a Lulav whose top has been cut off - because it is not Hadar ('Nifretzu Alav').
(a) The Tana also declares Pasul a Lulav whose leaves have been pulled loose and tied to the spine ('Nifretzu Alav') ki Chufya which means - like a broom (which is made of detached Lulav branches tied to a stick).
(b) A Lulav, on the other hand, whose leaves are loose but still attached to the spine ('Nifredu Alav') the Tana Kama declares Kasher. Rebbi Yehudah requires one to bind it.
(c) The Mishnah also validates Tzinei Har ha'Barzel - which are Lulavim with short leaves.
(d) Finally, the Tana validates a Lulav that is 'three Tefachim tall, sufficient to shake it' - by which he means that it must be three Tefachim tall (corresponding to the size of the Hadas), plus an extra Tefach, the Shi'ur that needs to be shaken.
(a) On the first day of Sukos, one must own the Lulav that one is taking - but not on all the other days.
(b) The Chiyuv Lulav on the first day of Sukos (outside the Beis Hamikdash) is d'Oraisa - whereas on the other days, it is only mid'Rabanan (to commemorate the Beis Hamikdash).
(c) We assume that the Pesul of Yavesh applies even on the other days of Sukos - because Hadar applies throughout Sukos, but not that of Gazul - which as we explained, is based on "Lachem", which only applies to the first day (see Tosfos. DH 'Ba'inan ... ').
(d) Rebbi Yochanan quoting Rebbi Shimon, explains that a stolen Lulav on the other days of Sukos is Pasul - because of 'Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah' (i.e. the Mitzvah came as a result of the Aveirah - see Tosfos DH 'Mishum').