ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) The Mishnah declares Pasul a stolen Lulav (See Tos. Yom-Tov) and one that is dry.
(b) We learn that a stolen Lulav is Pasul - from tha Pasuk in Emor "Ulekachtem Lachem" (indicating that one must own it [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(c) If the owner already despaired from receiving it ('Achar Yi'ush') - one is not Yotzei either, because it is a Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah.
(d) A dry Lulav (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is Pasul - because the Torah requires all the four species to be 'Hadar' (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Pasul') and a dry Lulav is not Hadar (nice/beautiful).
(a) The Mishnah also disqualifies a Lulav that comes from an Asheirah - a tree that is worshipped (See Tos. Yom-Tov) or from an Ir ha'Nidachas (a city whose inhabitants all served idols).
(b) The Tana disqualifies them - because they stand to be burned (and whatever stands to be burned is considered as if it has already been burned), in which case they no longer have the required Shi'ur.
(c) If the top of the Lulav (See Tos. Yom-Tov) has been lopped off - it is also Pasul ...
(d) ... because it too, is not Hadar.
(a) The Mishnah declares Pasul 'Nifr'tzu Alav - a Lulav whose leaves have becomes detached and which are tied to the Lulav, ', but 'Nifr'du Alav (whose leaves have come away from the middle stem (like the branches of a tree) but which are still attached) Kasher'.
(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah, 'Nif'rdu Alav' - requires the leaves to to be bound to the middle stem (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) 'Tzinei Har ha'Barzel' (See Tos. Yom-Tov) is - a Lulav which has short leaves ...
(d) ... which the Mishnah declare Kasher - provided the top of each leaf reaches up to the bottom of the one above it.
(a) The minimum size of a Lulav is three Tefachim.
(b) When the Tana adds 'K'dei Lena'ane'a bo', he means - 'u'K'dei Lena'ane'a bo' (meaning plus enough to shake) ...
(c) ... which adds an extra Tefach.
(a) The Mishnah - declares Pasul a Hadas (See Tos. Yom-Tov) that is stolen or dry, that comes from an Asheirah or from an Ir ha'Nidachas, whose top has been lopped off (See Tos. Yom-Tov), or whose leaves are detached and tied on artificially.
(b) The Halachah regarding the Din of a Hadas whose top has been lopped off is - that even if tops of all three Hadasim Hadasim have been lopped off, they are Kasher (like Rebbi Tarfon, whom we will cite later).
(c) The 'Anavav' to which the Tana then refers are - berries that sometimes grow on the Hadas ,,,
(d) ... and which render it Pasul - if there more berries than leaves ...
(e) ... provided they are black or red, but not if they are green - in which case they are considered the same species as the leaves and are Kasher.
(a) To render Kasher a Hadas with more berries than leaves - one needs to cut off the excessive berries.
(b) One may not do this on Yom-Tov - because it is Mesacken Mana (repairing a K'li, which is forbidden on Yom-Tov (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah rules that an Aravah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
1. ... that is stolen or dry, or one that is from an Asheirah or an Ir ha'Nidachas ...
2. ... whose top has been lopped off or whose leaves are broken off and artificially tied to the stem - are all Pasul (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Halachah is that an Aravah whose top has been lopped off - is Kasher (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) A Tzaftzafah - (a species of Aravah with a round leaf) is Pasul too (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Mishnah declares valid however, an Aravah that is K'mushah, from which some of the leaves have dropped off (See Tos. Yom-Tov), or one of Ba'al. An Aravah ...
1. ... 'K'mushah' is - an Aravah that has withered (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
2. ... of Ba'al is - one that did not grow besides a brook.
(e) Despite the fact that that the Torah describes Aravos as "Arvei Nachal", 'Aravos shel Ba'al' are Kasher - because the Torah only describes them in this way since that is where they usually grow.
(a) Initially, Rebbi Yishmael requires one Lulav and one Esrog - three Hadasim (See Tos. Yom-Tov) and two Aravos (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The problem with the continuation of his words 'Even if the top of two of them are lopped off K'tumim) ... ' is - that Mah Nafshach, if a Hadas Katum is Kasher, then why should even all three K'tumim not be Kasher?
(c) To explain this - we conclude that Rebbi Yishmael retracted from his original stance, and requires only one Hadas and one Aravah (like Rebbi Akiva later in the Mishnah) ...
(d) ... and the two K'tumim are of no significance (and might just as well not be there at all).
(a) Rebbi Tarfon requires three Hadasim and two Aravos (like Rebbi Yishmael held initially) - even if all three Hadasim are K'tumim ...
(b) ... because he maintains - that the Din of 'Hadar' does not apply to a Hadas (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'Afilu ... ').
(c) Rebbi Akiva - requires one Lulav, one Esrog, one Lulav and one Hadas (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Tarfon (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah invalidates an Esrog (See Tos. Yom-Tov) that is ...
1. ... stolen or dry (See Tos. Yom-Tov), that is ...
2. ... taken from an Asheirah or an Ir ha'Nidachas, an Esrog of ...
3. ... Orlah, and an Esrog of ...
4. ... Terumah Temei'ah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...
(b) ... all because they are not fit to eat ...
(c) ... since the Torah writes in Emor "Ulekachtem lachem" (implying that the four species must be fit for you to use.
(d) The Tana forbids Lechatchilah using an Esrog of Terumah Tehorah (See Tos. Yom-Tov). He validates it Bedi'eved - because a Kohen is permitted to eat it (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) Beis Shamai declare an Esrog of D'mai invalid. Beis Hillel validate it - because one is permitted to feed to the poor (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) An Esrog of Ma'aser Sheini outside Yerushalayim is Pasul even Bedi'eved - because it cannot be eaten outside the walls of Yerushalayim and is therefore not considered "lachem".
(c) n Esrog of Ma'aser Sheini in Yerushalayim - has the same Din as one of Terumah Tehorah,
(a) The Mishnah declares Pasul an Esrog if the majority is covered with Chazazis - little spots (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Esrog will be Pasul even if the Chazazis ...
1. ... covers only the minority of it however - if they are scattered over two or three (See Tos. Yom-Tov) areas Esrog (as opposed to being in one location).
2. ... takes on the form of no more than one spot - if it is located on the Pitum ...
(c) ... where it is more clearly visible.
(a) The Mishnah also declares the Esrog Pasul if the Pitum (at the top of the Esrog) has been removed, or if the Esrog is peeled (Niklaf) or split (See Tos. Yom-Tov). Some say that Niklaf is Pasul - only if it is completely peeled (but not just partially); whereas others say that it is Pasul - only if is partially peeled (because then it looks as if it is blotched) but if it is peeled completely.
(b) 'Niklaf' cannot mean that the entire peel has been removed, revealing the white section that surrounds the actual fruit - because then it would be Pasul because of 'Chaser'.
(c) What it therefore means is - that a very fine layer of peel has been removed, si that the Esrog still remains yellow.
(a) The Tana declares Pasul an Esrog with a hole in it - provided the hole goes all the way through from one side to the other (i.e. a Nekev Mefulash [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(b) He also declares it Pasul even if ...
1. ... it is not Mefulash - if it is Chaser.
2. ... it is neither Chaser nor Mefulash (i.e. if one pushed a thick peg into it) - if the hole is narrower than a k'Isar coin.
(a) The Mishnah declares Kasher - an Esrog whose minority is covered with Chazazis (See Tos. Yom-Tov), its stalk has been removed or it has a hole without being Chaser (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) An Esrog ha'Kushi is - one that is colored black.
(c) It is Kasher however - if it grew in Kush (Abysinia).
(a) Rebbi Meir declares Kasher an Esrog that is as green as Karsi - (a leek).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah - declares it Pasuln (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The Halachah - is like Rebbi Yehudah.
(d) We qualify all the current P'sulim - by confining them to the first day of Yom-Yov. But from the second day of Yo-Tov (in Chutz la'Aretz [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) and onwards, they are Kasher.
(a) Rebbi Meir gives the minimum size of an Esrog is a walnut. According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is - the size of an egg (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yehudah.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah gives the maximum size of an Esrog is that two such Esrogim can be held in one hand (See Tos. Yom-Tov). Acording to Rebbi Yossi, as long as one can hold the Esrog in two hands (See Tos. Yom-Tov), it is Kasher.
(d) The Halachah is - like Rebbi Yossi.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah rules that one must bind the Hadasim and the Aravos to the Lulav using one of the three species (leaves or twigs from an Lulav, Hadas or Aravah [See Tos. Yom-Tov]) ...
(b) ... because, he maintains, it is a Mitzvah to bind them together, and using another species means transgressing 'Bal Tosif' (not to add to the four species).
(c) Rebbi Meir permits using even string - because he holds that there is no such Mitzvah (See Tos. Yom-Tov [and we bind them together because of ? 'Hidur Mitzvah' (beautifying the Mitzvah]).
(a) Rebbi Meir tried to prove his point from the men of Yerushalayim, who, he said - used to bind the three species together with golden threads.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah countered however - that they first bound them with one of the three species (and only then did they add the golden threads to beautify it).
(c) The Halachah is - that it is not a Mitzvah to bind the three species together. Consequently, the Halachah is like Rebbi Meir.
(a) The Mishnah asks whereabouts in Hallel they used to shake Lulav. This question is connected - with Mishnah 'Alef', which gives the size of a Lulav as 'three Tefachim plus an extra Tefach to shake'.
(b) In answer to the She'eilah, Beis Hillel obligate shaking - by 'Hodu' and 'Ana Hash-m Hoshi'a Na!' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) Some explain that when they say 'be'Hodu la'Hashem Techilah ve'Sof', they mean both at the beginning of the Pasuk and at the end. The preferred explanation however, is - the earlier 'Hodu' and the latter one.
(d) Beis Shamai maintain - that one also shakes Lulav when saying 'Ana Hash-m Hatzlicha Na!' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) Rebbi Akiva attested that he saw Raban Gamliel and Rebbi shaking Lulav - by 'Ana Hash-m Hoshi'a Na!' only (even though the rest of the people shook in the other places too).
(b) The Halachahhowever, is - like Beis Hillel (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) One shakes the Lulav in all four directions (See Tos. Yom-Tov), up and down ...
1. ... in all four directions - to negate bad winds.
2. ... up and down - to prevent harmful dews.
(b) Whilst moving the Lulav ...
1. ... away from oneself one shakes it three, and so one does when moving it ...
2. ... back ...
3. ... upwards and ...
4. ... back down.
(a) The Mishnah rules that if one comes home at night without having yet shaken the Lulav - one should shake it even in the middle of one's meal, if one forgot to shake it earlier (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) And if one did not manage to shake Lulav all morning - then one can still shake it in the afternoon, since the Mitzvah applies all day.
(a) What does the Mishnah say about someone who is having Hallel read to him by a slave, a woman or a Katan?
(b) Why does this earn him a curse?
(c) If it is a Gadol who is reading Hallel for the community (as was common in those days), he answers - Halelu-Kah after each piece.
(d) One cannot simply do the same in the earlier case - because whoever is not himself Chayav to perform whatever Mitzvah it may be (such as the three aforementioned regarding Hallel) cannot be Motzi others.
(a) When the Tana talks about the Minhag to repeat, he is referring to - all the Pesukim from 'Odcha' and onwards.
(b) He says that there where the local Minhag is ...
1. ... to repeat those sections - one should do so, and there where the local Minhag is ...
2. ... to say them only once - then that is what should do.
(c) The reason that they instituted the Minhag to repeat specifically those Pesukim is - because all the Pasukim prior to that are basically repeated already.
(d) And when he draws a similar distinction between where the Minhag is to recite a B'rachah and where the Minhag is not to do so, he is referring to - the B'rachah at the conclusion of Hallel ...
(e) ... before the B'rachah before Hallel - is obligatory (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) If someone who purchases a Lulav from his 'friend' in the Sh'mitah-year - the 'friend must give him the Esrog free of charge.
(b) 'His 'friend' in this case is - an Am ha'Aretz, who is suspect on Sh'mitah ...
(c) ... whereas the purchaser is a Chaver (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) The Chachamim forbade him to pay for the Esrog (which is intrinsically permitted) - for fear that he will not destroy the money that he receives for it (or the proceeds that he subsequently receives in exchange for the money, before the Z'man ha'Biy'ur.
(e) They did not however, extend the prohibition to the Esrog - which is not edible and therefore not subject to Biy'ur.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Emor (in connection with the Arba Minim) "Usemachtem Lifnei Hash-m Elokeichem Shiv'as Yamim" - that before Hash-m (i.e.) ...
1. ... in the Beis-ha'Mikdash one takes the Lulav seven day, but ...?
2. ... in Yerushalayim (i.e. outside the Beis-ha'Mikdash), only one day.
(b) Afte the destruction of the Beis-ha'Mikdash, Raban Yochanan ben Zakai instituted - that one should take the Lulav for seven days even outside the Beis-ha'Mikdash ...
(c) ... in commemoration of the Beis-ha'Mikdash.
(a) He also instituted that 'Yom Henef' - (the sixteenth of Nisan) should be forbidden to eat Chadash.
(b) One would otherwise have been permitted to eat Chadash ...
1. ... when the Beis-ha'Mikdash stood - by the time the Korban Omer was brought (by mid-day at the latest (since the Torah writes "ad Havi'achem es Omer ha'Tenufah").
2. ... after it was destroyed - by the morning of the sixteenth (based on the Pasuk "ad Etzem ha'Yom ha'Zeh").
(c) And the reason that he forbade it until the following day was because - otherwise, he was afraid that the following year people might take their cue from this year, and permit eating Chadash before the Omer is brought 'like they did last year').
(a) If the first day of Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos, the people used to take their Lulavim to Shul, before Shabbos (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The following morning, everyone had to take care to find his own Lulav - because, on the first day, one is Chayavto use one's own Lulav ...
(c) ... since the Torah writes in Emor - 'Ulekachtem Lachem ba'Yom ha'Rishon P'ri Itz Hadar ... ", from which Chazal Darshen 'mi'Shelachem' (that the Arba Minim must belong to the person who is being Yotzei with them.
(d) This was not necessary on the other days of Yom'Tov - because "ba'Yom ha'Rishon" clearly confines this to the first day.
(a) Rebbi Yossi rules that someone who forgets on the first day of Succos that falls on Shabbos, and carries out his Lulav into the street (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - is Patur ...
(b) ... because he only forgot about Shabbos since he was busy with the Mitzvah (which was permitted [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(c) The major condition that must be fulfilled, without which he will be Chayav is - that he has not yet fulfilled the Mitzvah when he transgresses Shabbos ...
(d) ... either because he carried it upside-down (and since that is not the way it grows one is not Yotzei) - or because he carried it out in a receptacle (and taking an object of Mitzvah via something else in a way that is disrespectful is not called taking).
(a) A woman is allowed to take the Lulav of her husband or her son on Shabbos (See Tos Yom-Tov) - and place it in a barrel of water to keep it fresh.
(b) We might have thought otherwise - because, since she is not Chayav to perform the Mitzvah of Lulav, it is Muktzah for her (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) According to Rebbi Yehudah - on Shabbos (See Tos. Yom-Tovone may return the Lulav to the bucket of water where it was previously, on Yom-Tov one may add water and on Chol-ha'Mo'ed, one may even change the water ...
(d) ... and that is the Halachah.
(a) Finally, the Mishnah obligates a father who has a son who has reached the age of Chinuch - to buy his son a set of arba Miynim.
(b) As far as Lulav is concerned, the son has reached the age of Chinuch - when he is able to shake the Lulav correctly.
(c) The source of this Chiyuv is - mi'de'Rabbanan.