ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) Someone who sleeps underneath a bed in a Sukah is not Yotzei the Mitzvah of Sukah - provided the bed is at least ten Tefachim high ...
(b) ... because then it is considered an Ohel, which divides between himself and the Sukah (See Tos. Yom-Tov & Tiferes Yisrael).
(c) The three main occupations that require Sukah are - eating, drinking and sleeping.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah proved that one is permitted to sleep underneath a bed in the Sukah - by the fact that when he and his colleagues used to do so in the presence of the elders, they did not object.
(b) His reason is - because a temporary Ohel is unable to negate a permanent one (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.
(a) Rebbi Shimon quoted Raban Gamliel as having described Tavi his slave asbeing a Talmid-Chacham for having slept underneath the bed in his Sukah ...
(b) ... which he attributed to his knowing that Avadim are Patur from the Mitzvah of Sukah.
(c) Tavi was Patur - because any Mitzvah from which a woman is Patur, an Eved Cana'ani is Patur too.
(d) He extrapolated from Raban Gamliel's statement - that anyone who sleeps underneath the Sukah has not fulfilled his duty.
(e) When he said 'u'Lefi Darkeinu Lamadnu ... ', he meant - that we can learn the above from Raban Gamliel's statement even though he was merely relating the incident in praise of Tavi.
(a) The Mishnah - validates a Sukah that is supported by bed-posts (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?
(b) Rebbi Yehudah invalidate it however - provided it is unable to stand by itself is Pasul ...
(c) ... based on his own principle - that a Sukah needs to be a permanent dwelling.
(d) The Halachah is - like the Chachamim.
(a) A 'Sukah Meduvleles' is - a Sukah whose S'chach is arranged vertically in such a way that each two rows of canes lean against each other to form an upside-down vee ...
(b) ... which we would have thought is Pasul - because it creates a space which lets more sunshine into the Sukah than shade.
(c) Yet the Tana permits it - as long as, if the canes were lying horizontally, they would create more shade than sun (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'ha'Meduvleles' and 've'she'Tzilasah').
(d) He also validates a Sukah whose S'chach is 'as thick as a roof ...
(e) even if the S'chach is so thick that the stars cannot be seen through it (See Tiferes Yisrael).
(a) A Sukah that one constructs on top of a wagon or boat is - Kasher
(b) We might have declared invalid a Sukah on ...
1. ... a wagon - because it is mobile and is not fixed in one place, and ...
2. ... a boat - (also) because the wind is likely to blow it away.
(c) These Succos are in fact, Kasher - because it is called 'Dirah' (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(d) A Sukah on a boat is Pasul however - if it cannot stand up to a regular land wind.
(a) A Sukah that one constructs on a tree or on the back of a camel - is Kasher, too.
(b) However - whereas the Mishnah permits entering a Sukah on a wagon or a boat on Yom-Tov, it forbids entering a Sukah on a tree or on the back of a camel ...
(c) Due to the decree against climbing a tree or riding on an animal on Shabbos or Yom-Tov.
(d) The significance of the ruling declaring the latter Kasher is - that one is permitted to enter them on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(a) The Mishnah rules - that, on Yom-Tov (or Shabbos) one is forbidden to enter a Sukah whose ...
1. ... two adjacent walls are supported by trees and its third wall is man-made (from the ground up) or one whose ...
2. ... two adjacent walls are man-made and its third wall is supported by a tree?
(b) The Tana permits entering a Sukah on Yom-Tov - if three walls are man-made, and only the fourth wall is supported by a tree ...
(c) ... because the Sukah will remain standing even if the tree is removed (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The Mishnah declares Kasher a Sukah whose walls comprise trees - provided they are thick and strong and do not sway in a regular wind.
(b) In addition, one must - fill the spaces between the branches with straw and stubble, to ensure that the branches do not sway either (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) Sh'luchei Mitzvah are Patur from the Mitzvah of Sukah - on account of the principle 'ha'Oseik ba'Mitzvah, Patur min ha'Mitzvah (Someone who is busy with one Mitzvah is Patur from performing another Mitzvah' [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
(d) An example of a Shali'ach Mitzvah is - someone who is going to visit his Rebbe or to redeem a captive.
(e) The P'tur applies - even if one breaks their journey to rest for the night.
(a) The Tana rules that someone who is looking after a sick person - is exempt from Sukah, as well as the sack person himself ...
(b) ... who is Patur - even if he merely feels unwell.
(c) How do we learn the current rulings from the Pasuk in Emor "ba'Succos Teishvu ... " - which implies 'Teishvu Ke'ein Taduru' (that one's obligation to live in the Sukah is equivalent to the way one lives in one's house).
(a) Besides someone who is disturbed by a bad smell or insects, the Mishnah also exempts - travelers (See Tos. Yom-Tov) and guards of fields or orchards Patur from Sukah for the same reason?
(b) A person gauges whether the disturbance is big enough to exempt him from Sukah or not - by assessing whether, if the same thing disturbance occurred in his house, he would change his location or not.
(c) One will not however, be Yotzei the Mitzvah if one sits in such a Sukah - if one constructs one's Sukah to begin with in a location where he knows he will not be able to eat or sleep there ...
(d) ... because a Sukah in which one cannot eat, drink and sleep is Pasul.
(e) However, the Tana even permit one to eat and drink outside the Sukah - 'Ar'ai' (casually), if it is just a snack, and one still intends to eat the meal inside the Sukah.
(a) The Mishnah relates what happened when they brought a dish to Raban Yochanan ben Zakai to taste outside the Sukah (See Tos. Yom-Tov). Raban Gamliel they brought - two large dates and a bucket of water.
(b) Both Tana'im (independently) said - 'Take them up to the Sukah' ...
(c) ... not min ha'Din, but because they wanted to be Machmir on themselves?
(d) We can learn from them - that it is a good thing to do to avoid eating anything at all outside the Sukah.
(a) When they brought Rebbi Tzadok food to eat outside the Sukah (See Tos. Yom-Tov) he ...
1. ... wrapped it is his hands in a cloth - because otherwise he would have had to wash his hands (presumably he had no water [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).
2. ... ate specifically less than a k'Beitzah - to avoid having to recite Birchas ha'Mazon (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) This not have been because he was outside the Sukah - since one is permitted to eat 'Arai outside the Sukah (See note).
(a) Rebbi Eliezer obligates one to eat fourteen meals in the Sukah - two each day of Succos (one at night and one by day).
(b) The Chachamim maintain - that there is no such obligation, and even if one wishes to fast, one may (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) They concede however, that one is obligated to eat in the Sukah on the first night - based on a Gezeirah-Shavah "Chamishah-Asar" "Chamishah-Asar" from Matzah on the first night of Pesach (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) Rebbi Eliezer then says that someone who failed to eat a Se'udah on the first night of Succos ) a Se'udah on the first night of Succos - is obligated to make it up on the night of Shemini Atzeres (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Chachamim say - that this is not something that one can make up ...
(c) ... based on the Pasuk in Koheles "Me'uvas Lo Yuchal Yiskon ve'Chesaron Lo Yuchal Lehimanos".
(a) Beis Shamai rules that somebody whose head and most of him are in the Sukah (See Tos. Yom-Tov), but his table is in the house, is not Yotzei. They are talking about - a large Sukah.
(b) Beis Hillel say - that he is Yotzei.
(c) They bring a proof from an episode regarding the the elders of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel - who went to visit and (Rebbi) Yochanan ben ha'Chorni, whom they found sitting, head and most of him in the Sukah, and his table in the house.
(d) Beis Shamai - countered that the elders did indeed say to him that if that his regular custom, then he had never fulfilled the Mitzvah of Sukah in his life (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel say - the same about a small Sukah (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH ('Beis Shamai Poslin').
(b) The definition of a small Sukah is - one that measures seven by seven Tefachim.
(c) Beis Shamai's reason is - because one might get drawn after one's table.
(d) The Halachah is like - Beis Shamai with regard to both...
1. ... a large Sukah and ...
2. ... a small Sukah.
(a) The Mishnah say rules that Nashim, Avadim and Ketanim' - are exempt from the Mitzvah of Sukah (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(b) The Tana Kama concedes however, that a Katan is Chayav - once he is no longer tied to his mother's apron strings (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(c) The definition of a Katan who needs his mother (and who is therefore Patur from Sukah) is - one who cries out 'Ima Ima' until his mother arrives (See Tos. Yom-Tov).
(a) The daughter-in-law of Shamai ha'Zakein once - broke a hole in the roof, on which sh placed S'chach for the sake of her her baby.
(b) She did that as a Chumra.