BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
1) [line 1, 11] "[V'HAYAH BA'YOM HA'HU AVAKESH L'HASHMID ES KOL HA'GOYIM HA'BA'IM AL YERUSHALAYIM. V'SHAFACHTI AL BEIS DAVID V'AL YOSHEV YERUSHALAYIM RU'ACH CHEN V'SACHANUNIM] V'HIBITU ELAI ES ASHER DAKARU; V'SAFDU ALAV K'MISPED AL HA'YACHID [V'HAMER ALAV K'HAMER AL HA'BECHOR. BA'YOM HA'HU YIGDAL HA'MISPED B'YERUSHALAYIM K'MISPED HADADRIMON B'VIK'AS MEGIDO]. V'SAFDAH HA'ARETZ MISHPACHOS MISHPACHOS LEVAD MISHPACHAS BEIS DAVID LEVAD U'NESHEIHEM LEVAD [MISHPACHAS BEIS NASAN LEVAD U'NESHEIHEM LEVAD...]" - "[It shall be on that day that I will plan to destroy all of the nations that come upon Yerushalayim. I will pour out upon the house of David and upon the inhabitants of Yerushalayim a spirit of grace and supplications.] They will look towards Me because of those whom they have stabbed; they will mourn over him as one mourns over an only [child], [and be embittered over him like the embitterment over a [deceased] firstborn. On that day the mourning will become intense in Yerushalayim, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon [and the mourning] at the Valley of Megido.] The land will mourn, each family by itself; the family of the house of David by itself and their wives by themselves. [The family of the house of Nasan by itself and their wives by themselves. The family of the house of Levi by itself and their wives by themselves; the family of Shim'i by itself and their wives by themselves. And all of the families who remain; each of the families by itself, and their wives by themselves]." (Zecharyah 12:9-14)
*2*) [line 17] NIDMEH LAHEM K'HAR GAVO'AH - that is, the Yetzer ha'Ra of the righteous looks larger and more powerful since, as the Gemara at the end of this Amud says, "the greater the person, the greater his Yetzer ha'Ra."
*3*) [line 19] TZADIKIM BOCHIN V'OMRIM - (the Tzadikim cried because they remembered how hard they had worked to conquer the Yetzer ha'Ra in their lifetime, RASHI -- see also Insights to the Daf, for other explanations.)
4) [line 25] BUCHYA - (a) (O.F. iraigne) spider (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa KUCHYA - the weaver's shuttle that holds the spool of Erev (woof) thread as it is thrown back and forth in between the Shesi (warp) threads of the loom (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH) (Note -- in Maseches Shabbos 96b, the shuttle is called a BUCHYAR. See also Dikdukei Sofrim here #300)
5) [line 26] AVOSOS HA'AGALAH - the ropes of the wagon (that bind it to a horse)
6) [line 27] "HOY MOSHCHEI HE'AVON B'CHAVLEI HA'SHAV; V'CHA'AVOS HA'AGALAH CHATA'AH" - "Woe to those who pull iniquity upon themselves with cords of falsehood, and [pull] sin [upon themselves] with the ropes of a wagon." (Yeshayah 5:18)
7) [line 31] ASAPERAH - I must relate
8) [line 48] "V'ES HA'TZEFONI ARCHIK ME'ALEICHEM [V'HIDACHTIV EL ERETZ TZIYAH U'SHEMAMAH, ES PANAV EL HA'YAM HA'KADMONI V'SOFO EL HA'YAM HA'ACHARON; V'ALAH VASHO V'SA'AL TZACHANASO, KI HIGDIL LA'ASOS.]" - "I will distance the northern one from you [and I will banish him to an arid and desolate land, his face to the Eastern Sea and his back to the Western Sea; his foul odor will ascend and his stench will rise, for he has done great [evil].]" (Yoel 2:20) - Our Gemara interprets this verse as referring to the Yetzer ha'Ra, which is hidden (Tzafun) in man's heart.
9) [line 49] TZIYAH - arid
10) [line 49] L'HISGAROS BAHEN - to antagonize them
11) [line 52] SON'EIHEM SHEL YISRAEL - this is a euphemism for Benei Yisrael
12) [line 53] AFRESHINHU ME'ISURA - I will prevent them from committing a transgression
13) [line 54] AGMA - meadow, marsh
*14*) [line 54] SHAM'INHU D'KA AMREI - that is, even though the people Abaye was following were not aware that he was following them, they refrained from sin on their own.
15) [line 54] ORCHIN RECHIKA - the distance between our cities is great, i.e. we must part now
16) [line 54] V'TZAVSIN BESIMA - and had we been able to continue together, our company would have been sweet
17) [line 54] MAN D'SANI LI - a person that hates me, my enemy (Abaye was referring to himself, when influenced by the Yetzer ha'Ra)
18) [line 55] TALA NAFSHEI B'IBURA D'DASHA - he leaned on the bolt of the door (in sorrow)
19) [line 7] MENUVAL ZEH - this disgraceful being, the Yetzer ha'Ra
20) [line 8] MISPOTZETZ - it shatters
21) [line 10] "AVANIM SHACHAKU MAYIM..." - "Stones are worn away by water..." (Iyov 14:19)
22) [line 12] "...UCH'FATISH YEFOTZETZ SALA." - (a) "...and like a hammer that shatters a stone into many fragments." (RASHI to Shabbos 88b DH Mah Patish); (b) "...and like a hammer that is shattered by the hard stone." (RABEINU TAM, cited by TOSFOS) (Yirmeyahu 23:29)
23) [line 15] "MEFANEK MI'NO'AR AVDO, V'ACHARISO YIHEYEH MANON" - "If one indulges (pampers) his slave from youth, he will end up being ruled by him" (Mishlei 29:21) - The slave is the Yetzer ha'Ra. One who yields to the wishes of his Yetzer ha'Ra will find it almost impossible to fight against it afterwards.
24) [line 16] B'ATBaCH SHEL REBBI CHIYA - a method of linguistic extrapolation whereby each letter of the alphabet is replaced with a corresponding letter, where the sum of the numerical value of the two letters equals 10, 100 and 1000. (It should be noted that the final letters have the following equivalents: Chaf Sofis - 500; Mem Sofis - 600; Nun Sofis - 700; Fe Sofis - 800; Tzadi Sofis - 900.) Since the letters He, Nun and Chaf Sofis correspond to 5, 50 and 500, respectively, they have no corresponding letters. As such, they are all interchangeable.
25) [line 17] "[AMI B'ETZO YISH'AL, U'MAKLO YAGID LO]; KI RU'ACH ZENUNIM HIS'AH..." - "[My people ask counsel of a piece of wood, and their staff declares to them;] for a spirit of harlotry has misled [them...]" (Hoshea 4:12). This verse refers to a practice of witchcraft.
26) [line 18] "...KI RU'ACH ZENUNIM B'KIRBAM..." - "...for a spirit of harlotry is within them..." (Hoshea 5:4)
27) [line 19] HELECH - wayfarer (traveler)
28) [line 24] "K'MAR'ISAM VA'YISBA'U..." - "With their pasture they became sated..." (Hoshea 13:6) - The word for pasture, Mir'eh, is similar to the word for affliction, Mera. The Gemara interprets these words to mean that if a person afflicts (starves) himself with regard to marital relations, his desire will be under control (MAHARSHA).
29) [line 27] "HEN ERETZ KASDIM, ZEH HA'AM LO HAYAH..." - "Behold, this (the city-state of Tzor) is the land of the Kasdim, for this nation (the Kena'anim who lived in Tzor) never used to be [here...]" (Yeshayah 23:13) - The Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "this nation (the Kasdim) never was [worthwhile, and it would be best had it never existed]."
30) [line 28] "YISHLAYU..." - "The tents of robbers are tranquil, and there is security for those who anger HaSh-m, into whomever's hand HaSh-m brings it." (Iyov 12:6) - The Yisma'elim are known as tent-dwellers and robbers. The end of the verse states that HaSh-m brought them into existence, albeit reluctantly.
31) [line 30] NISMOTETU - give way, buckle
32) [line 33, 36] "VA'YAR'ENI HASH-M ARBA'AH CHARASHIM. [VA'OMAR MAH ELEH VA'IM LA'ASOS?] VA'YOMER LEIMOR, ELEH HA'KERANOS ASHER ZERU ES YEHUDAH, [KEFI ISH LO NASA ROSHO, VA'YAVO'U ELEH L'HACHARID OSAM, L'YADOS ES KARNOS HA'GOYIM, HA'NOS'IM KEREN EL ERETZ YEHUDAH L'ZAROSAH]" - "HaSh-m then showed me four artisans. [I asked [the Mal'ach], 'What are they coming to do?' And He spoke [to the Mal'ach] to say [to me], 'These horns [are the nations] that dispersed [the people of] Yehudah, [humiliating them] until no man could raise his head. So these [artisans] have come to terrify them, to cast down the horn of the nations who raise a horn against the [people of the] land of Yehudah, to disperse it.'" (Zecharyah 2:3-4)
32) [line 34] CHARASHIM - artisans
33) [line 35] KOHEN TZEDEK - lit. the righteous Kohen, i.e. (a) Shem the son of Noach (who was called an artisan because he helped build Noah's ark) (RASHI); (b) Ezra (ETZ YOSEF)
34) [line 36] "...VA'YOMER (ELAI) [LEIMOR] ELEH..." (Zecharyah 2:4) - see above, entry #32
35) [line 36] HANI (L'SHUVAH ASU) [YESUVEI MEISVEI LEHU] - (this is the Girsa of the manuscripts, Ein Yakov and Yalkut Shimoni -- Dikdukei Sofrim #9) - the people that you called "artisans" (Zecharyah 2:3) will cause the return of the Jews to their homeland. The next verse (ibid. 2:4) speaks of people who dispersed the Jews
36) [line 37] SHAFIL L'SEIFEI D'KERA - (lit. look below) inspect the end of that verse
37) [line 39] "V'HAYAH ZEH SHALOM..." - "And this shall be peace; if Ashur shall come into our land and if he shall tread in our palaces, then we shall raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes of men." (Michah 5:4)
38) [line 47] MARTA BAS BAISUS - a wealthy Jewish noble woman who lived in Yerushalayim during the times of the Tana'im (see Yevamos 61a, Gitin 56a)
39) [line 50] MISHUM YUKRA - because of its weight
40) [line 50] KEVESH - [he only had to walk up] a ramp
41) [line 50] MERUBA - that had an incline of 1 to 4; it extended four Amos for every Amah of its height
42) [last line] V'LO ZAKIF - and that was not vertical
Index to Background for Maseches Sukah