SUKAH 44 (17 Adar II) - Dedicated by Elliot and Lori Linzer in honor of Mairav Linzer's birthday.

[44a - 44 lines; 44b - 41 lines]

1)[line 9]דלא עבדינן לה שבעהD'LO AVDINAN LAH SHIV'AH- that we do not perform it for seven days [but rather, only on the day of Hoshana Rabah]

2)[line 13]מגבה ליהMAGBEH LEI- lift it (the bound Lulav, Hadasim, and Aravos)

3)[line 21]בקעת בית חורתןBIK'AS BEIS CHAVARTAN- of the valley of Beis Chavartan. This most probably refers to Chavran or Auran, which are mountains mentioned as locations from which fires was lit signaling that Rosh Chodesh had been declared (Rosh Hashanah 22b). These mountains are located in the area east of the Jordan River known as Aurantis.

4)[line 21]עשר נטיעותESER NETI'OS

(a)The Torah requires farmers to desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7). Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means: 1. It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.

(b)Chazal understand from the verse "ba'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos" - "you should refrain [from working the field] during the time of plowing and harvest" (Shemos 34:21) - that one may not work his field for a period of one month prior to the Rosh Hashanah that signals the onset of Shemitah. This is known as Tosefes Shevi'is. The Chachamim enacted that one may not plow a field beginning from Pesach of the year before Shemitah, and that one may not plow around and under the roots of trees in an orchard in order to help aerate and irrigate them beginning from Shavu'os of the year before Shemitah (Mo'ed Katan 3a).

(c)"Eser Neti'os" - "ten saplings" - refers to a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai concerning ten young trees equally dispersed throughout a Beis Se'ah (an area fifty Amos by fifty Amos). The Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches that since saplings are delicate, one may plow the entirety of such a field all the way up to the Rosh Hashanah at which Shemitah begins. If there are fewer trees or a they are planted in a larger area, then one is permitted to plow under and around them for a proportionate area; i.e., an area one-tenth that of a Beis Se'ah (Shevi'is 1:6).

5)[line 22]ניסוך המיםNISUCH HA'MAYIM- See Background to 42:47

6)[line 24]עיקר מן התורהIKAR MIN HA'TORAH- an origin (i.e., an instruction that it be performed at some point) from the Torah

7)[line 27]בעלי מומיןBA'ALEI MUMIN

(a)A Kohen who has a Mum (physical blemish) is forbidden to perform Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether ha has a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish; e.g. an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish; e.g. boils). The RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS maintains that these are counted as two separate negative commandments (#'s 70 and 71), while the RAMBAN rules that they are included in one Lav. If an animal has a Mum (physical blemish), it may not be offered as a Korban.

(b)There are three categories of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. those that invalidate both a Kohen from performing the Avodah as well as an animal from being offered as a sacrifice upon the Mizbe'ach; 2. those that invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. those that invalidate both a Kohen and an animal, but only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin - since they appear to be invalidating blemishes.

(c)The status of a Kohen, and the Avodah he performed, while he was a Ba'al Mum depends on the severity of the Mum: 1. if his Mum is one that invalidates both Kohanim and animals, then he is liable to receive Malkus (lashes) if he performed the Avodah b'Mezid according to the Rabanan, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim according to Rebbi. His Avodah is Pesulah whether he performed it b'Shogeg or b'Mezid; 2. if his Mum is one that invalidates only Kohanim, then his Avodah is Kesheirah (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6); 3. if his Mum is one that prevents him from performing the Avodah only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin, then he does not receive Malkos, and his Avodah is Kesheirah (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276).

8)[line 27]בין האולם ולמזבחBEIN HA'ULAM VELA'MIZBE'ACH- the twenty-two Amah wide area between the Ulam (TY# 56; the entrance hall to the Heichal) and the outer Mizbe'ach

9)[line 28]מי אמרה?MI AMRAH?- (the Gemara now understands this to mean) who said [that Aravah in the Beis ha'Mikdash is a Mitzvah, which would allow blemished Kohanim to enter the area between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach]?

10a)[line 35]יסוד נביאיםYESOD NEVI'IM- an enactment of [Chagai, Zecharyah, and Mal'achi, the last of] the prophets [that has the status of a Mitzvah and therefore requires a Berachah]

b)[line 36]מנהג נביאיםMINHAG NEVI'IM- a custom initiated by [Chagai, Zecharyah, and Mal'achi, the last of] the prophets [for which no Berachah is required]

11)[line 42]"אֶשְׁתּוֹמַם כְּשָׁעָה חֲדָה, [וְרַעְיֹנֹהִי יְבַהֲלֻנֵּהּ ...]""... ESHTOMAM K'SHA'AH CHADA, [V'RAIYONOHI YEVAHALUNEI ...]" - "[Then Daniel, who was also known as Beltshatzar,] was confounded for a moment, [and his thoughts became confused. But the king addressed him and said, 'Beltshatzar, do not let the dream and its interpretation confuse you' ...]" (Daniel 4:16). (DANIEL INTERPRETS NEVUCHADNETZAR'S DREAM)

(a)Nevuchadnetzar, king of Bavel, dreamt a dream that none of his wise men were able to interpret. Since Daniel had once before correctly interpreted a dream of his that had stumped everyone else, Nevuchadnetzar called for him. He understood that he was wiser than any other advisor due to his relationship with Hash-m.

(b)When Daniel heard the dream, he immediately understood its negative connotations. He did not wish to anger the king. Nevuchadnetzar reassured Daniel that he had already picked up on the fact that the dream did not portend good tidings, and that he need not fear to proceed.

(c)Daniel informed the king that he would be transformed into an animal, and that for seven years he would live among the wild beasts.

(d)Our Gemara applies the reaction of Daniel to Rebbi Avahu; he was stunned into speechlessness for a moment when he heard the challenge of Rebbi Zeira.

12a)[line 43]שכחוםSHACHECHUM- they forgot [the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Aravah in the confusion of the Babylonian exile]

b)[line 43]וחזרו ויסדוםV'CHAZRU V'YASDUM- and the prophets reestablished the practice [after Hash-m revealed it to them]

13a)[last line]והא"ר יוחנןV'HA AMAR REBBI YOCHANAN- did Rebbi Yochanan not say [to his students a) from Eretz Yisrael (RASHI); b) from Bavel (TOSFOS DH v'Ha Amar Rebbi Yochanan; RABEINU CHANANEL)]

b)[last line]דלכון אמרי; דלהון היאDILCHON AMREI; DILHON HI- a) I had said to you that the primary tradition of Torah was here in Eretz Yisrael, where we were not subjected to the tribulations of exile; I now see that it lies with those in Bavel. This statement came following the incident in which Rav Kahana, who had been forced to flee from Bavel, successfully explained many areas of Torah which had been unclear to Rebbi Yochanan. The question of our Gemara is how Rebbi Yochanan could maintain that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai had been forgotten in Bavel, when he was known to have stated that their mastery of Torah was greater than that of those who remained in Eretz Yisrael! (RASHI); b) according to the Girsa DILCHON AMAR DILHON HI - one of yours (i.e., Rav Kahana) said that Aravah was theirs (meaning, a custom initiated by the Nevi'im)" (TOSFOS DH v'Ha Amar Rebbi Yochanan; RABEINU CHANANEL)

44b----------------------------------------44b

14a)[line 1]כאן במקדשKAN B'MIKDASH- a) [Rebbi Yochanan rules that] in the Beis ha'Mikdash [it was a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai] (RASHI); b) [Rebbi Yochanan rules that] at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash [it was a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai to perform it in the Beis ha'Mikdash and a Yesod Nevi'im to do so outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

b)[line 1]כאן בגבוליןKAN B'GEVULIN- a) [Rebbi Yochanan rules that] outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash [it was a Yesod Nevi'im] (RASHI); b) [Rebbi Yochanan rules that] when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash [then it is merely a custom began by the Nevi'im to take the Aravah branches] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

15a)[line 11]ג' בדי עלין לחיןSHELOSHAH BADEI ALIN LACHIN- a) three branches with moist leaves growing upon them (RASHI); b) three branches, each with three leaves growing upon them (RAN)

b)[line 12]עלה אחד ובד אחדALEH ECHAD U'BAD ECHAD- (this implies) a single leaf and a single branch [even if one is not attached to the other]

16)[line 14]אייבוAIVU- The Aivu quoted here is the father of Rav, and he lived at the end of the of the period of the Tana'im. His great-grandson of the same name is mentioned on line 17; he was an Amora.

17)[line 15]חביט חביטCHAVIT CHAVIT- a) he shook it repeatedly (RASHI); b) he beat it repeatedly on the ground (ROSH)

18)[line 21]קרייתא אית ליKARYASA IS LI- I own villages

19)[line 21]כרמיאKARMAYA- vineyards

20)[line 22]זיתיאZEISAYA- olive orchards

21a)[line 22]מקשקשין בכרמיאMEKASHKESHIN B'KARMAYA- they hoe in the vineyards [on Shevi'is (see above, entry # 44:4:a)]

b)[line 23]ואוכלין בזיתיאV'OCHLIN B'ZEISAYA- and they eat olives from the orchards [as their wage, before the olives have been declared ownerless]

22)[line 23]אריך או לא אריך?ARICH O LO ARICH?- is this proper or improper?

23)[line 24]הוה קא שביק ליה ואזילHAVA KA SHAVIK LEI V'AZIL- [as] he was leaving Rebbi Elazar bar Tzadok

24a)[line 25]כדו הויתי דייריKEDO HAVEISI DAIRI- I have been living

b)[line 25]בארעא הדאB'AR'A HADA- in this land

25a)[line 26]לא חמיתי בר אינשLO CHAMISI BAR INISH- I have not seen someone

b)[line 26]מהלך בארחן דתקנן כדיןMEHALECH B'ORCHAN D'SAKNAN K'DEIN- act as appropriately as this person

26)[line 27]הדר ואתיHADAR V'ASI- he returned

27)[line 27]מאי מיעבד?MAI MI'AVAD?- what should I do?

28)[line 27]אפקר זיתיא לחשוכיאAFKAR ZEISAYA L'CHASHOCHAYA- renounce ownership of the olive trees, [leaving them] for the poor

29)[line 28]פריטיאPERITAYA- coins (Perutos)

30)[line 29]"וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת, תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ""VEHA'SHEVI'IS TISHMETENAH U'NETASHTAH ..."- "And the seventh [year], you shall leave it unattended and deserted ..." (Shemos 23:11).

31)[line 31]מלסקלMI'LESAKEL- from clearing stones

32)[line 32]סתומי פיליSETUMEI PILEI- filling up cracks [in the ground that have exposed tree roots. The trees will die if left with their roots exposed.]

33)[line 32]אברויי אילניAVRUYEI ILANEI- improving the trees [by a) making holes in the earth surrounding their roots, thereby softening it; b) performing actions on the tree itself that maintain and improve it]

34)[line 35]ג' פרסאותSHALOSH PARSA'OS- three Parsa'os; this describes a distance of approximately 11.8 kilometers or 7.2 miles.

35a)[line 36]לביתיהL'VEISEI- to his house [where he may become angry if he finds that food has not been prepared for him]

b)[line 37]לאושפיזיהL'USHPIZEI- to his place of lodging

36)[line 37]אמאי דנקיט סמיךA'MAI D'NAKIT SAMICH- he [knows to] rely [only] on what [food] he has with him

37)[line 38]אפי' לביתיהAFILU L'VESEI- even to his house [where he owns whatever is there; all the more so to where he is a guest, where he has nothing]

38)[line 39]כסא דהרסנאKASA D'HARSENA- a small fish cooked with flour in its own oil

39)[last line]על גג האיצטבאAL GAG HA'ITZTEVA- on the roofs of the benches of the double colonnade [that was situated along the inside of the wall of Har ha'Bayis]

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