1) [line 21] BIK'AS BEIS CHAVARTAN - of the valley of Beis Chavartan; this is probably referring to Chavran or Auran, one of the mountains where a fire was lit signaling Rosh Chodesh (Rosh ha'Shanah 22b), located in the country east of the Jordan River named Aurantis
2) [line 21] ESER NETI'OS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) Chazal learn from the verse, "ba'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos," (Shemos 34:21) that the prohibition mid'Oraisa against plowing the land during Shemitah starts one month before the actual Shemitah year (Tosefes Shevi'is). This applies both to fields and orchards with grown trees. The Rabanan added to this prohibition and prohibited plowing a field from the Pesach before Shemitah and an orchard with grown trees from the Shavu'os before Shemitah.
(c) Eser Neti'os is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai concerning ten saplings that are planted with equidistant spacing in an area of a Beis Se'ah (fifty square Amos). One is permitted to plow such saplings right up to Rosh Hashanah of the Shemitah year, in spite of the Mitzvah of Tosefes Shevi'is. If there are less than ten saplings in this area or they are not planted as above, it is only permitted to plow under and around each tree up to the Shemitah year, but not the entire orchard (Shevi'is 1:6).
3) [line 22] NISUCH HA'MAYIM
(a) One of the Mitzvos of the festival of Sukos in the Beis a'Mikdash was the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation that is offered on the Mizbe'ach). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water were drawn from the Shilo'ach spring that is located to the south of the Temple Mount. The water was brought to the Azarah in a joyous procession, to fulfill the verse, "u'Sh'avtem Mayim b'Sason..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing..." - Yeshayah 12:3).
(b) The Kohen who was chosen to pour the water ascended the Mizbe'ach and poured the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). This took place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice, amidst much rejoicing.
4) [line 27] BEIN HA'ULAM V'LAMIZBE'ACH - the 22-Amah-wide area between the Ulam (the Entrance Hall, which opened onto the Heichal) and the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon
5) [line 35] YESOD NEVI'IM - an enactment of the [later] prophets (that is an obligation)
6) [line 36] MINHAG NEVI'IM - a custom initiated by the [later] prophets
7) [line 42] ESHTOMAM K'SHA'AH CHADA - Rav Avahu was stunned speechless for a moment. [This is a quote from Daniel 4:16 when Daniel heard Nevuchadnetzar's dream.]
8) [line 43] SHACHECHUM V'CHAZRU V'YASDUM - they forgot the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Aravah and the prophets reestablished the practice after it was revealed to them from Heaven
9) [last line] V'HA AMAR REBBI YOCHANAN: DILCHON AMREI?! DILHON HI! - (a) but Rebbi Yochanan said to his students from Eretz Yisrael, "Do they say that the Torah is yours (i.e. that you are the experts in understanding the Torah)? It is theirs (i.e. the people who live in Bavel are the experts)!" [The Gemara is questioning how the traditions of the Torah could have been forgotten during the Babylonian exile if even in the time of Rebbi Yochanan the Yeshivos in Bavel knew the Torah so well] (RASHI); (b) but Rebbi Yochanan said to his students from Bavel, "One of you (i.e. Rav Kahana, who comes from Bavel) says that Aravah was theirs (a custom initiated by the Nevi'im)" (TOSFOS DH v'Ha Amar Rebbi Yochanan)
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