1a) [line 1] HA B'KULAH - if the entire [Esrog is peeled, then a) it is kosher, as it is not Menumar (see below, entry #10e) (RASHI); b) it is Pasul, since it is similar to an animal in similar condition, which is a Tereifah (see below, entries #4 and 5a) (TOSFOS, RABEINU CHANANEL)]
b) [line 1] HA B'MIKTZASAH - if only part [of the Esrog is peeled, then a) it is Pasul, as it is Menumar (RASHI); b) it is kosher, since it is no longer similar to a Tereifah (TOSFOS, RABEINU CHANANEL)]
2) [line 2] NEKEV MEFULASH - a) a hole that runs from one side of the Esrog through to the other side [with no Esrog matter missing] (RASHI, BEHAG, RIF, RA'AVAD); b) a hole that runs from one side of the Esrog through to the chambers that contain its seeds [with no Esrog matter missing] (YERUSHALMI cited by the ROSH, RI, RAN)
3a) [line 1] B'MASHEHU - [is Pasul when] it is of any width
b) [line 3] BEK'ISAR - [is Pasul when] it is as large as an Isar, a Roman coin the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar. (This describes an area of approximately 4.1 square cm. or 0.64 square inches.)
4) [line 4] TEREIFAH - an animal with a malady that will cause it to die within the year, rendering it non-kosher and unfit as a Korban
*5a*) [line 5] NIKLAF - If all of an animal's hide is missing, it is a Tereifah.
b) [line 5] NISDAK - An animal is a Tereifah if its neck is split completely lengthwise. If at least one cartilage ring of the trachea remains at either end, then it is kosher.
c) [line 5] NIKEV - If the membrane surrounding the brain of an animal is pierced, then it is a Tereifah.
6) [line 7] REI'AH SHE'NISHPECHAH K'KITON - if a [diseased] lung [has decayed to the point that its meat] can be poured [within it from one end to the other] like a flask of water
*7*) [line 8] SIMPONAHA - its bronchial tubes and bronchioles. Our Gemara considers the equivalent in an Esrog to be its seeds and the chambers that contain them.
8a) [line 10] D'LO SHALIT BAH AVIRA - that [the meat of the lungs] is not exposed to the air
b) [line 10] HADAR BARI - it will eventually heal
9) [line 11] SERUCHEI MASRACHAS - it will a) rot; b) become putrid
10a) [line 12] TAFU'ACH - a) (O.F. enfle) swollen; b) rot
b) [line 12] KAVUSH - preserved
c) [line 13] SHALUK - well cooked
d) [line 13] KUSHI - a) black, originating in Kush (RASHI). The land of Kush is identified as 1. Ethiopia (JOSEPHUS) or Arabia (TARGUM YONASAN to Bereishis 10:6, Divrei ha'Yamim I 1:8-9). In this context, Arabia refers to an area in Africa located upon the upper Nile (as described by HERODOTUS, cited by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan in Bereishis 10:6) or the entire Nile area; 2. an area to the east of Eretz Yisrael (YOVLOS, cited by Rabbi Kaplan ibid.). This may near India (see Megilah 11a; see also, however, Background to Yoma 34:25:b). The Hindu-Kush mountain range to the immediate northwest of India is said to have been populated by Ethiopian migrants (M. Rosen); b) very dark green (RIF, RAMBAM; see Insights).
e) [line 13] MENUMAR - (O.F. tajez) speckled
11) [line 13] K'KADUR - [round] as a ball
12) [line 14] HA'TEYOM - twin Esrogim, joined together
13) [line 14] HA'BOSER - a) an unripe Esrog the size of a white bean (RASHI); b) an unripe Esrog of any size (TOSFOS 31b DH Shi'ur Esrog Katan)
14) [line 15] DEFUS - a mold [used to shape the Esrog]
15) [line 16] BERYAH - a creation
16) [line 21] DOMEH L'KUSHI - a) a black Esrog grown on a tree that generally produces yellow Esrogim (RASHI); b) an Esrog as black as an African native (RIF, RAMBAM; see Insights)
17a) [line 23] HA LAN - this [Halachah of the Beraisa, which states that an Esrog Kushi is kosher,] applies to us [in Bavel, where such Esrogim are not unusual since we are close to Kush (this may refer to the Hindu-Kush mountain range, near India -- see above, entry #10:d)]
b) [line 23] V'HA LEHU - that [Halachah of our Mishnah, which states that an Esrog ha'Kushi is Pasul,] applies to them [in Eretz Yisrael, where there are no Esrogim from faraway Kush]
18) [line 26] REBBI SHIMON POTER ES HA'ESROGIM B'KOTNAN (MA'ASROS)
(a) Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.
(b) Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe must be separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26). This is called Terumas Ma'aser.
(c) Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor.
(d) During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 13:22-28). The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 13:22-28).
(e) Rebbi Shimon rules that one need not separate Ma'aser from unripe Esrogim. Rabah assumes that this is because they are not yet termed fruit. It is for this very reason that Rebbi Akiva maintains that one may not use such an Esrog for the Arba Minim, which require a "Pri Etz Hadar".
*19*) [line 31] K'DERECH SHE'BNEI ADAM MOTZI'IN L'ZERI'AH - [one is obligated to separate Ma'asros only from] that which people generally plant the seeds of. The Rabanan rule that Ma'asros must be separated from fruit at the stage at which is edible. Therefore, one must separate Ma'asros from Esrogim and apples from when they are quite small, since they are edible from that point. Rebbi Shimon disagrees. He maintains that the guideline is when the fruit produces viable seeds. Apples produce viable seeds from a very young age; Esrogim, however, do not. Their disagreement therefore concerns only Esrogim (Ma'asros 1:4).
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