[42a - 49 lines; 42b - 55 lines]
1)[line 1]"ויהי הוא בשער בנימן ושם בעל פקדת ושמו יראייה בן שלמיה בן חנניא ויתפש את ירמיהו הנביא לאמור אל הכשדים אתה נפל. ויאמר ירמיהו שקר אינני נפל על הכשדים ולא שמע אליו ויתפש יראייה בירמיהו ויבאהו אל השרים.""VA'YEHI HU B'SHA'AR BINYAMIN, V'SHAM BA'AL PEKIDUS U'SHEMO YIR'IYAH BEN SHELEMYAH BEN CHANANYAH, VA'YISPOS ES YIRMEYAH HA'NAVI LEIMOR, 'EL HA'KASDIM ATAH NOFEL!' VA'YOMER YIRMEYAHU, 'SHEKER! EINENI NOFEL AL HA'KASDIM!' V'LO SHAMA ELAV, VA'YISPOS YIR'IYAH ES YIRMEYAH VA'YEVI'EHU EL HA'SARIM." - "And he was by the Gate of Binyamin, and there was an officer by the name of Yir'iyah, the son of Shelemyah, the son of Chananyah, and he seized Yirmeyah ha'Navi, saying, 'You are going to surrender to the Babylonians!' And Yirmeyah said, 'That is a falsehood. I am not going to surrender to the Babylonians.' But Yir'iyah did not listen to him; he seized Yirmeyah and brought him to the officers." (Yirmeyah 37:13-14) (YIRMEYAH'S ARREST)
(a)The Midrash explains, in addition to the Gemara's explanation, that Yir'iyah was obeying his grandfather's instructions to his father Shelemyah (based on the fact that Yir'iyah was the grandson of Chananyah ben Eizor, whom Yirmeyah had flattered). Shelemyah passed those instructions on to Yir'iyah to ensure that after he died - following his earlier confrontation with the Navi - Yir'iyah should do whatever was in his power to make Yirmeyah's life a misery.
(b)That is why he now delivered Yirmeyah into the hands of the officers on the basis of his false accusation. The officers promptly beat Yirmeyah and placed him in jail, causing him to suffer terribly.
2)[line 7]"כי עדת חנף גלמוד [ואש אכלה אהלי שחד]""KI ADAS CHANEF GALMUD, [V'ESH ACHELAH AHOLEI SHOCHAD.]"- "For the company of flatterers shall be forlorn, [and fire shall consume the tents of bribery.]" (Iyov 15:34)
3)[line 8]בכרכי היםKERAKEI HA'YAM- fortified port cities
4)[line 9]גלמודה גמולה מבעלהGEMULAH DA MI'BA'ALAH- this one is separated from her husband
5)[line 11]"ואמרת בלבבך מי ילד לי את אלה ואני שכולה וגלמודה גלה וסורה ואלה מי גדל הן אני נשארתי לבדי אלה איפה הם""V'AMRAT BI'LVAVECH, 'MI YALAD LI ES ELEH, VA'ANI SHECHULAH V'GALMUDAH; GOLAH V'SURAH, V'ELEH MI GIDEL, HEN ANI NISH'ARTI LEVADI, ELEH EIFOH HEM.'"- "Then shall you say in your heart, 'Who has borne me these, seeing as I have lost my children, a solitary, an exile, and a wanderer to and fro? And who has brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; these, where have they been?'" (Yeshayah 49:21)
6)[line 14]ארבע כיתות אין מקבלות פני שכינהARBA KITOS EIN MEKABLOS PENEI SHECHINAH- four groups of people will not merit to greet the Shechinah - see Sha'arei Teshuvah 3:172 for elaboration
7)[line 14]כיתותKITOS- groups
8a)[line 15]ליציםLEITZIM- scoffers, jokers
b)[line 15]שקריםSHAKARIM- liars
9)[line 16]"[יום מלכנו החלו שרים חמת מיין] משך ידו את לצצים""[YOM MALKENU, HECHELU SARIM CHAMAS MI'YAYIN;] MASHACH YADO ES LOTZETZIM."- "[On the day of our King (when the King of kings manifests himself), the [heavenly] ministers [of the nations] became sick from the heat of [drinking] the [poisoned] wine;] He withdrew His hand from the scoffers." (Hoshea 7:5) - This translation follows the implied meaning of our Gemara. Most Mefarshim to Hoshea translate this verse with reference to a corrupt, mortal king.
10)[line 18]"... דבר שקרים לא יכון לנגד עיני""... DOVER SHEKARIM LO YIKON L'NEGED EINAI."- "[He who works deceit shall not dwell in my house;] he who tells lies shall not remain in my sight." (Tehilim 101:7)
11)[line 19]"כי לא קל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע""KI LO KEL CHAFETZ RESHA ATAH; LO YEGURCHA RA."- "For You are not a G-d Who desires wickedness; no evil dwells with You." (Tehilim 5:5)
PEREK #8 MESHU'ACH MILCHAMAH
12)[line 23]משוח מלחמהMESHU'ACH MILCHAMAH
(a)There is a Mitzvah to appoint a Kohen at the onset of a war to speak to the soldiers and encourage them. This Kohen is anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah, and is therefore called the Meshu'ach Milchamah.
(b)Before the soldiers leave Eretz Yisrael for the front, the Kohen reads the verses in Devarim (20:5-7) which order certain people to return to their homes. These people are: 1. a person who recently built a house but did not yet consecrate it; 2. a person who recently planted a vineyard but did not yet redeem the fourth-year fruits; and 3. a person who recently betrothed a woman but did not yet marry her. A Shoter (officer) present also reads the next verse (ibid. 20:8) that instructs all of those who are afraid of the battle (because of their personal sins) to return to their homes, lest they instill fear in the rest of the soldiers going to battle. (This interpretation of the word "afraid" follows the opinion of Rebbi Yosi ha'Glili or Rebbi Yosi (Mishnah to Daf 44a). Rebbi Akiva (ibid.) takes this verse literally.)
(c)Before the onset of each battle, the Kohen admonishes the soldiers not to fear the battle, reading verses 20:3-4. He encourages them that even if their only merit is the fact that they read Keri'as Shema twice daily, this is enough to save them. (RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 7:1-3, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #526)
(d)The abovementioned verses are presented here for handy reference:
1.Verse 2 ודבר אל העם והיה כקרבכם אל המלחמה ונגש הכהן "V'HAYAH K'KARAVCHEM EL HA'MILCHAMAH; V'NIGASH HA'KOHEN V'DIBER EL HA'AM." - "And it shall be, when you have come near the battle, that the Kohen shall approach and speak to the people." (Devarim 20:2)
2.Verse 3 "ואמר אלהם שמע ישראל אתם קרבים היום למלחמה על איביכם אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תערצו מפניהם" "V'AMAR ALEIHEM, 'SHEMA YISRAEL, ATEM KEREVIM HA'YOM LA'MILCHAMAH AL OYEVEICHEM; AL YERACH LEVAVCHEM, AL TIRE'U V'AL TACHPEZU, V'AL TA'ARTZU MIPNEIHEM.'" - "And he shall say to them, 'Hear, O Yisrael, you are coming near this day to the battle against your enemies; let not your hearts faint, fear not, and do not tremble, nor be you terrified because of them.'" (Devarim 20:3)
3.Verse 4 "כי ה' אלקיכם ההולך עמכם להלחם לכם עם איביכם להושיע אתכם" "KI HASH-M ELOKEICHEM HA'HOLECH IMACHEM L'HILACHEM LACHEM IM OYVEICHEM, LEHOSHI'A ESCHEM." - "For HaSh-m your Elokim is He Who goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you." (Devarim 20:4)
4.Verse 5 "ודברו השוטרים אל העם לאמר מי האיש אשר בנה בית חדש ולא חנכו ילך וישב לביתו פן ימות במלחמה ואיש אחר יחנכנו" "V'DIBRU HA'SHOTRIM EL HA'AM LEIMOR, 'MI HA'ISH ASHER BANAH VAYIS CHADASH V'LO CHANACHO, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; PEN YAMUS BA'MILCHAMAH V'ISH ACHER YACHNECHENU.'" - "And the officers shall speak to the people, saying, 'Who is the man who has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicates it.'" (Devarim 20:5)
5.Verse 6 "ומי האיש אשר נטע כרם ולא חללו ילך וישב לביתו פן ימות במלחמה ואיש אחר יחללנו" "U'MI HA'ISH ASHER NATA KEREM V'LO CHILELO, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; PEN YAMUS BA'MILCHAMAH V'ISH ACHER YECHALELENU" - "And who is the man who has planted a vineyard, and has not yet redeemed [the fourth-year fruits of] it? Let him also go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man redeems it." (Devarim 20:6)
6.Verse 7 "ומי האיש אשר ארש אשה ולא לקחה ילך וישב לביתו פן ימות במלחמה ואיש אשר יקחנה" "U'MI HA'ISH ASHER ERAS ISHAH V'LO LEKACHAH, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; PEN YAMUS BA'MILCHAMAH V'ISH ACHER YIKACHENAH" - "And who is the man who has betrothed a wife, and has not married her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man marries her." (Devarim 20:7)
7.Verse 8 "ויספו השוטרים לדבר אל העם ואמרו מי האיש הירא ורך הלבב ילך וישב לביתו ולא ימס את לבב אחיו מלבבו" "V'YASFU HA'SHOTRIM L'DABER EL HA'AM, V'AMRU, 'MI HA'ISH HA'YAREI V'RACH HA'LEVAV, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; V'LO YIMAS ES LEVAV ECHAV KI'LVAVO.'" - "And the officers shall speak further to the people, and they shall say, 'Who is the man who is fearful and fainthearted? Let him go and return to his house, lest his brothers' hearts faint along with his heart.'" (Devarim 20:8)
8.Verse 9 "והיה ככלות השוטרים לדבר אל העם ופקדו שרי צבאות בראש העם" "V'HAYAH K'CHALOS HA'SHOTRIM L'DABER EL HA'AM, U'FAKDU SAREI TZEVA'OS B'ROSH HA'AM" - "And it shall be, when the officers have finished speaking to the people, that they shall appoint captains of the armies to lead the people." (Devarim 20:9)
13)[line 25]"והיה כקרבכם אל המלחמה ונגש הכהן ודבר העם""V'HAYAH K'KARAVCHEM EL HA'MILCHAMAH; V'NIGASH HA'KOHEN V'DIBER EL HA'AM."- This verse, as well as all the other verses that the Gemara discusses in connection with the Meshu'ach Milchamah, are brought above in entry #14.
14)[line 30]"ויקמו האנשים אשר נקבו בשמות ויחזיקו בשביה וכל מערמיהם הלבישו מן השלל וילבשום ויגעלום ויכלום וישקום ויסכום וינהלום בחמרים לכל כושל ויביאום ירחו עיר התמרים אצל אחיהם וישובו שמרון""VA'YAKUMU HA'ANASHIM ASHER NIKVU B'SHEMOS, VA'YACHZIKU BA'SHIVYAH, V'CHOL MA'ARUMEIHEM HILBISHU MIN HA'SHALAL, VA'YALBISHUM, VA'YAN'ILUM, VA'YA'ACHILUM, VA'YASHKUM, VA'YESUCHUM, VA'YENAHALUM BA'CHAMORIM L'CHOL KOSHEL, VA'YEVI'UM YERECHO IR HA'TEMARIM ETZEL ACHEIHEM, VA'YASHUVU SHOMRON" - "And the men who were picked by name arose and took hold of the captives; all their naked ones they clothed with the booty they had taken, and they placed shoes on their feet, and they fed them and gave them to drink and anointed them, and all those who were weak they led on donkeys, and they brought them to Yericho, the city of dates, where there brothers were, and they returned to Shomron." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 28:15) (CAPTIVES WHO ARE BROTHERS)
(a)This incredible story describes the humane treatment given by Pekach ben Remalyahu, king of Yisrael, to the 200,000 captives (men, women, and children) whom they had just captured from Yehudah, after defeating the army of Achaz, king of Yehudah, in battle.
(b)Even though they did not return the captives on their initiative but only at the behest of Oded ha'Navi, what they did and the way they did it was certainly a great credit for Pekach ben Remalyahu and the leaders of Efrayim who effected it.
15)[line 36]צהלת סוסיםTZAHALAS SUSIM- the neighing of horses
16)[line 37]וציחצוח חרבותV'TZICHTZU'ACH CHARAVOS- and the clashing of swords
17)[line 37]הגפת תריסיןHAGAFAS TERISIN- the striking of their shields together
18)[line 37]ושפעת הקלגסיןV'SHIF'AS HA'KALGASIN- and the hordes of armies
19)[line 37]מקול קרנותMI'KOL KERANOS- from the sound of the horns
20)[line 38]קול צווחותKOL TZEVACHOS- the sound of the soldiers shouting
21)[line 38]בנצחונוB'NITZCHONO- with strength
22)[line 40]שובךSHOVACH- the commander-in-chief of the army of Hadarezer, king of Aram, who was killed by David ha'Melech. Amon had previously hired mercenaries from Aram to aid them in their war against Yisrael. David ha'Melech sent Yo'av and Avishai to lead the army of Yisrael in battle and they returned victorious. Aram then regrouped and brought over a large army led by Shovach. David ha'Melech himself fought against him and was victorious (Shmuel II 10:1-19, Divrei ha'Yamim I 19:1-19).
23)[line 43]בממונהB'MEMUNEH- with one who is appointed
24)[line 45]סגןSEGAN- the deputy Kohen Gadol, who has been prepared to officiate in place of the Kohen Gadol, should he become unfit to do the Avodah (RASHI to Sotah 40b). According to the Girsa in Yoma 39a, he always stays at the Kohen Gadol's right-hand side.
25)[line 45]למה סגן ממונהL'MAH SEGAN MEMUNEH?- For what is the Segan appointed?
26)[last line]בספרB'SEFAR- in the border
27)[line 1]שמעו דברי מערכי המלחמה וחזרוSHIM'U DIVREI MA'ARCHEI HA'MILCHAMAH V'CHIZRU- Listen to the criteria of those who wage war (i.e. the announcement of the Kohen as to who may go to war and who must return home)
28)[line 4]מגיפיןMEGIFIN- striking [their shields together]
29)[line 4]ומריעיןU'MERI'IN- and sounding [their horns]
30)[line 4]צווחיןTZOVCHIN- shouting
31)[line 5]ורומסיןV'ROMSIN- and stamping [the hoofs of their horses]
32)[line 6]גליתGOLYAS- Goliath
33)[line 6]בגילויפניםB 'GILUY PANIM- with brazenness
34)[line 7]"... ברו לכם איש וירד אלי... ודוד בן איש אפרתי הזה... ויגש הפלשתי השכם והערב ויתיצב ארבעים יום...""... BERU LACHEM ISH V'YERED ELAI!… V'DAVID BEN ISH EFRATI HA'ZEH... VA'YIGASH HA'PELISHTI HASHKEM VE'HA'AREV, VA'YISYATZEV ARBA'IM YOM..." - "[And he stood and he called out to the ranks of Yisrael, and he called out to them, 'Why (bother to) go and wage war? Am I not the Pelishti, while you are servants to Shaul.] Pick for yourselves a man and let him come down to me'… And David was the son of this Efrati (important man) [from Beis Lechem Yehudah, whose name was Yishai, who had eight sons. And the man in the days of Shaul was already old, he would come and go at the head of many men.] And the Pelishti approached (the camp of Yisrael) every morning and every evening, and stood (between the camps) for forty days. [And Shaul, they (Yishai's three sons), and all Yisrael were in the valley of Eilah, fighting the Pelishtim. And he (David) was still speaking with them (his brothers) when behold, 'the man in between the camps' emerged, Goliath the Pelishti from Gas was his name, from Gas, from the ranks of the Pelishtim, and he spoke like these words, and David heard.]" (Shmuel I 17:8, 12, 16, 19, 23) (PREPARING TO FIGHT GOLYAS)
(a)The army of Shaul ha'Melech was engaged in battle with the Pelishtim. The Pelishti champion, Golyas (Goliath), a giant of a man, challenged any individual from the Jewish camp to single combat. The loser of the duel would forfeit the war.
(b)David had been sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Shaul's army. He arrived just in time to hear the challenge of Golyas. Perturbed at the insults hurled by Golyas toward HaSh-m, he volunteered for the challenge. Although victory was physically unlikely, David merited Heavenly assistance and killed Golyas with a stone from his slingshot.
35)[line 10]"איש אפרתי""ISH EFRASI"- a man who comes from Beis Lechem, which is also known as Efras
36)[line 14]"[ויאמר הפלשתי אל דוד] הכלב אנכי כי אתה בא אלי במקלות [ויקלל הפלשתי את דוד באלקיו]... ויאמר דוד אל הפלשתי אתה בא אלי בחרב ובחנית ובכידון ואנכי בא אליך בשם ה' צבקות אלקי מערכות ישראל אשר חרפת""[VA'YOMER HA'PELISHTI EL DAVID,] 'HA'KELEV ANOCHI KI ATAH BA ELAI BA'MAKLOS?' VA'YEKALEL HA'PELISHTI ES DAVID B'ELOKAV… VA'YOMER DAVID EL HA'PELISHTI, 'ATAH BA ELAI BA'CHEREV UVA'CHANIS UV'CHIDON, V'ANOCHI BA ELECHA B'SHEM HASH-M TZEVAKOS, ELOKEI MA'ARCHOS YISRAEL ASHER CHERAFTA.'" - "[And the Pelishti said to David,] 'Am I a dog, that you come against me with sticks?' And the Pelishti cursed David by his gods... And David said to the Pelishti, 'You come against with me with a sword, a spear, and a javelin, but I come against you with the Name of the Lord of Hosts, the G-d of the ranks of Yisrael whom you insulted.'" (Shmuel I 17:43, 45) (A BATTLE OF WORDS)
(a)As far as Golyas was concerned, the outcome of a battle depends entirely on a combination of strength and weaponry. It was the stronger man with the more advanced weapons that was bound to win.
(b)David ha'Melech knew better. He knew that, as the Torah teaches us, "HaSh-m Ish Milchamah, HaSh-m Shemo." HaSh-m needs no weapons. All He wants is that we place our faith in Him and make our Hishtadlus, and He does the rest. That is precisely what David did, in keeping with the verse in Mishlei (21:31), "The horse is prepared for the day of battle, but salvation belongs to HaSh-m!"
37)[line 19]"ויגש הפלשתי השכם והערב ויתיצב ארבעים יום""VA'YIGASH HA'PELISHTI HASHKEM VE'HA'AREV, VA'YISYATZEV ARBA'IM YOM."- "And the Pelishti approached (the camp of Yisrael) every morning and every evening, and stood (between the camps) for forty days." (Shmuel I 17:16)
38)[line 22]"ויצא איש הבנים ממחנות פלשתים גלית שמו מגת גבהו שש אמות וזרת""VA'YETZEI ISH HA'BENAYIM MI'MACHANOS PELISHTIM, GOLYAS SHEMO, MI'GAS; GOVHO SHESH AMOS VA'ZERES."- "And there came out a champion from the camp of the Pelishtim, named Golyas, of Gas, whose height was six Amos and a Zeres (3 to 4 meters tall)." (Shmuel I 17:4)
39)[line 24]שמבונה מכלמוםS HE'MEVUNEH MI'KOL MUM- who is well-built (proportioned); without blemish
40)[line 25]עשוי כבניןASUY K'VINYAN- made as [big as] a building
41)[line 26]פפיPAPEI- (O.F. padrastres) step-fathers (since only one of them was his father, the rest of them are called step-fathers) (RASHI)
42)[line 27]נאנאיNANI- (a) father (RASHI); (b) a dog (ARUCH)
43)[line 28]מגתMI'GAS- from a winepress
44)[line 28]כתיב מערות וקרינן מערכותKSIV ME'AROS V'KARINAN MA'ARCHOS- (this is a reference to the word in Shmuel I 17:23)
45)[line 29]הערוHE'ERU- had illicit relations
46)[line 30]הרפהHA'RAFAH- (lit. the giant) a name for Orpah (Shmuel II 21:16, 18, 20, 22)
47)[line 33]"ותקח האשה ותפרש את המסך על פני הבאר ותשטח עליו הריפות [ולא נודע דבר]""VA'TIKACH HA'ISHAH, VA'TIFROS ES HA'MASACH AL PNEI HA'BE'ER, VA'TISHTACH ALAV HA'RIFOS, [V'LO NODA DAVAR]." - "And the woman took the curtain and spread it on the surface of the well, and she poured on it beaten wheat, [and the matter was not known]." (Shmuel I 17:19) (THE NARROW ESCAPE OF YONASAN AND ACHIMA'ATZ)
(a)When, following Avshalom's rebellion, David fled Yerushalayim, among the spies he left behind to thwart Avshalom's plans were Yonasan ben Evyasar and Achima'atz ben Tzadok (see Background to Pesachim 119:38).
(b)After David ha'Melech's chief spy, Chushai ha'Arki, convinced Avshalom of a plan to delay his attack on David ha'Melech, Chushai ha'Arki immediately dispatched Tzadok and Evyasar to bring the message to David, with instructions to move away from Arvos ha'Midbar before morning. Tzadok and Evyasar wasted no time in sending a maidservant to their sons, who were awaiting instructions in Ein Rogel (a town close to Yerushalayim). Unfortunately, however, a servant of Avshalom spotted them there, so they quickly made their way to an acquaintance in Bachurim, where the man's wife quickly hid them in the well in their courtyard, which she promptly covered in the way described by the verse. When Avshalom's servants paid her a visit demanding to know where her two visitors were, she calmly informed them that they had left only a short while ago and had crossed the stream of water.
48)[line 34]כהריפותKEHA'RIFOS- like grits
49)[line 35]"ותפרוש המסך""VA'TIFROS HA'MASACH" - "and she spread the covering" (Shmuel II 17:19)
See above, entry #47.
50)[line 36]"אם תכתוש [את] האויל במכתש בתוך הריפות בעלי [לא תסור מעליו אולתו]""IM TICHTOSH [ES] HA'EVIL BA'MACHTESH, B'SOCH HA'RIFOS, BA'ELI; [LO SASUR ME'ALAV IVALTO.]"- "If you will pound a fool in a mortar, together with the grits, with a pestle; [his foolishness will not be removed from him.]" (Mishlei 27:22)
51)[line 36]"את ארבעת אלה ילדו להרפה בגת ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו""ES ARBA'AS ELEH YULDU L'HARAFAH B'GAS VA'YIPLU B'YAD DAVID UV'YAD AVADAV" - "These four were born to Harafah, and they fell into the hands of David and his servants." (Shmuel II 21:22) (THE TWO REMAINING SONS OF ORPAH)
The verse relates how the two remaining sons of Orpah - Saf and one who is described as a man of measure and who had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot - were killed in battle by other servants of David. The former was killed by Sibchai ha'Nechushasi, the latter by Yehonasan, the son of Shim'ah, David's brother.
52)[line 38]"וישבי בנב אשר בילידי הרפה ומשקל קינו שלש מאות משקל נחשת והוא חגור חדשה ויאמר להכות את דוד""V'YISHBI B'NOV ASHER BI'YELIDEI HARAFAH U'MISHKAL KINO SHELOSH ME'OS MISHKAL B'SHEKEL NECHOSHES, V'HU CHAGOR CHADASHAH VA'YOMER L'HAKOS ES DAVID" - "And Yishbi b'Nov, who was a child of Harafah (alias Orpah), and whose Kan (a specific weapon) weighed 300 copper Shekalim, and he was wearing a new belt (or sword), and he had in mind to kill David." (Shmuel II 21:16) (DAVID HA'MELECH AND YISHBI B'NOV)
(a)Rashi cites an explanation that this was the inaugural battle of Yishbi b'Nov's (Golyas' brother), and it was customary for a soldier in his inaugural battle to demonstrate his might by performing some special feat of strength. Yishbi b'Nov chose to go for David, or, as the Metzudas David points out, he saw that David was looking weak and vulnerable.
(b)The Gemara in Sanhedrin (96a), however, cites a dialogue between HaSh-m and David, in which HaSh-m told the king that the time had arrived to atone for his part in the episode with Nov, the city of Kohanim, which Shaul wiped out because Achimelech the Kohen Gadol provided David with food and a weapon when he was running away from him (Shaul).
(c)So He gave David a choice: either he could fall into the hands of his enemies, or his children would all die. David chose the former, and was subsequently taken captive by Yishbi b'Nov on a Friday afternoon. His various attempts to kill David failed due to HaSh-m's intervention. Yishbi b'Nov's final attempt almost succeeded, but Avishai ben Tzeruyah (Yo'av's brother) arrived to save him, using the Name of HaSh-m. After killing Orpah, Avishai succeeded in killing Yishbi b'Nov as well.
(d)Following that occasion, David's men decided not to allow him to go to war again, to prevent the "lamp of Yisrael" from becoming extinguished.
53)[line 38]"וישאו להם נשים מואביות שם האחת ערפה ושם השנית רות וישבו שם כעשר שנים""VA'YIS'U LAHEM NASHIM MO'AVIYOS, SHEM HA'ACHAS ORPAH, V'SHEM HA'SHENIS RUS; VA'YIHEYU SHAM K'ESER SHANIM" - "And they married Moabite women; the name of one of them was Orpah, the name of the second one was Rus. And they remained there for about ten years." (Rus 1:4) (ORPAH AND RUS)
(a)During the famine that occurred in the time of the Shoftim, Elimelech - a wealthy man from the descendants of Nachshon ben Aminadav - decided to leave Eretz Yisrael to escape the numerous requests for help that he anticipated from the many poor people who were starving. He took his wife, Naomi, and two sons, Machlon and Chilyon, and made his way to the fields of Moav, where he settled down to await the famine's end. One sin (leaving Eretz Yisrael) led to another, and his sons married non-Jewish Moabite women, Rus and Orpah, respectively.
(b)Ten years later, the famine still had not ended, and Machlon and Chilyon died without children, leaving the two women widows. Elimelech also died, leaving Naomi a widow.
(c)That was when news arrived that the famine in Eretz Yisrael had terminated, so Naomi decided to leave Moav to return to Eretz Yisrael. Her two daughters-in-law sought to accompany her, but she pleaded with them to return to Moav, as there was no future for them in Eretz Yisrael, whereas in Moav they stood a good chance of starting a new life. Orpah succumbed to her pleas; she kissed her mother-in-law and returned to her homeland, but not Rus. She preferred the life of the Jew, in spite of all its trials and tribulations. She cleaved to Naomi through thick and thin (see Background to Nedarim 37:16).
(d)The same night that Orpah returned to Moav, Chazal tell us, she had relations with a group of a hundred men, from whom Golyas was conceived.
54)[line 41]"ותשנה קולן ותבכינה עוד ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה""VA'TISENAH KOLAN VA'TIVKENAH OD, VA'TISHAK ORPAH LA'CHAMOSAH V'RUS DAVKAH BAH" - "And they raised their voices and they wept, and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Rus cleaved to her." (Rus 1:14) (ONE KISSED, AND ONE CLEAVED)
(a)See previous entry.
(b)Based on this verse, Chazal comment, "Let the sons of the one who kissed come and fall into the hands of the one who cleaved."
55)[line 42]"חץ חניתו""CHETZ CHANISO"- "the arrow of his saber" (Shmuel I 17:7) - The word Chetz is spelled with a "Ches" but is read with an "Ayin," "Etz Chaniso," which means "the handle of his saber."
56)[line 44]ולא לפתח ביה כלל?V'LO LIFTACH BEI KLAL!?- Then why [do the verses] speak about him at all!?
57)[line 46]שעשוי כשובךSHE'ASUY K'SHOVACH- that he was as [big as] a dovecote
58)[line 47]נשפך לפניו כקיתוןNISHPACH LEFAVAV K'KITON- (lit. pours out in front of him like [water pouring out of] a pitcher) collapses
59)[line 48]"אשפתו כקבר פתוח כולם גבורים""ASHPASO K'KEVER PASU'ACH; KULAM GIBORIM"- "his quiver is like an open grave; they are all champions" (Yirmeyahu 5:16)
60)[line 49]אשפתוASHPASOS- heaps
61)[line 50]שאומנין בקרבSHE'UMANIM B'KERAV- that are marksmen (but are not strong with regard to hand-to-hand combat)
62)[line 51]זבלZEVEL- dung
63)[line 53]"דאגה בלב איש ישחנה""DA'AGAH V'LEV ISH YASHCHENAH..."- "[If there is] a worry in one's heart, he should suppress it..." (Mishlei 12:25) - (lit. "he should lower it from his mind") The Gemara only refers to the Derashah, where this word is read "Yischenah" or "Yesichenah." (MINCHAS SHAI)
64a)[line 54]ישחנה מדעתוYISCHENAH MI'DA'ATO- [the verse recommends that] he should remove his worry from his mind
b)[last line]ישיחנה לאחריםYESICHENAH LA'ACHEIRIM- [the verse recommends that] he should talk about it with others; (a) so that they should give him advice (RASHI to Yoma 75a); (b) so that they should pray for him (ARUCH Erech Sach #6)
65)[last line]וכל כינויוV'CHOL KINUYAV- and all of its appellations (there was a piece of parchment in the Aron upon which was written the Shem ha'Meforash and all of its appellations - DVAR SHAUL, see RABEINU GERSHOM to Bava Basra 14b)