BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[30a - 29 lines; 30b - 40 lines]
1) [line 4] AISINAH - we brought it, learned it
2) [line 9] KOL HA'TA'UN BI'AS MAYIM MI'DIVREI SOFRIM
(a) This phrase means, "Whoever [is Tahor according to the Torah but] needs to immerse in a Mikvah (or wash his hands with Netilas Yadayim --RASHI to Chagigah 18b, see Insights to Chagigah 18:2) by a Rabbinical decree (as listed in Shabbos 13b)." The people or items with this status are as follows:
1. HA'OCHEL OCHEL RISHON - a person who eats a food that is a Rishon l'Tum'ah
2. HA'OCHEL OCHEL SHENI - a person who eats a food that is a Sheni l'Tum'ah
3. HA'SHOSEH MASHKIN TEME'IN - a person who drinks liquids that are Teme'im
4. HA'BA ROSHO V'RUBO B'MAYIM SHE'UVIN - a person who, on the day upon which he has immersed in a Mikvah, submerges most of his body and his head in water that has been drawn (see Insights to Shabbos 14:2)
5. TAHOR SHE'NAFLU AL ROSHO V'RUBO SHELOSHAH LUGIN MAYIM SHE'UVIN - a person who is Tahor, upon whom fall three Lugim of water that has been drawn (see Insights ibid.)
6. HA'OCHLIM SHE'NITME'U B'MASHKIN - food that touches liquids that were Teme'im
7. HA'KELIM SHE'NITME'U B'MASHKIN - utensils, the insides of which are touched by liquids that were Teme'im (see TOSFOS to Shabbos 14b DH Ela b'Mashkin ha'Ba'in Machmas Sheretz)
8. STAM YADAYIM - a person's hands are considered to be a Sheni l'Tum'ah unless he washes them and concentrates on keeping them Tehorim from the time that they were washed and onward
9. YADAYIM HA'BA'IM MACHMAS SEFER - a person whose hands touched one of the 24 Kisvei ha'Kodesh (see TOSFOS to Shabbos 14a DH ha'Ochez)
(b) The first seven require Tevilah, while the latter two only require Netilas Yadayim. In all of these cases, the person - or his hands - are considered to be a Sheni l'Tum'ah until he is Metaher himself.
3) [line 11] MA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
4) [line 14] HA'OCHEL OCHEL RISHON, RISHON - one who eats food that is a Rishon l'Tum'ah becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah
5) [line 17] V'EIN SHENI B'TERUMAH - the person who ate the Shelishi l'Tum'ah, although he is considered a Sheni for Hekdesh, and he makes Hekdesh into a Shelishi, is not considered a Sheni for Terumah. He does not even make the Terumah Pesulah (see Background to Shabbos 13b, #23).
6) [line 18] CHULIN SHE'NA'ASU AL TAHARAS TERUMAH
If someone guards his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and has laws that are similar to Terumah. (With regard to Hekdesh, however, everything is considered a Rishon l'Tum'ah - even Terumah itself! A person who eats Terumah Tehorah is also a Sheni l'Kodesh. Such is the stringency of Hekdesh!)
7) [line 25] CHALAH
Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is called Chalah. The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). An amount about half that much requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.
8) [line 28] PACHOS MIK'BEITZAH (TUM'AS OCHLIN)
(a) All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei.
(b) Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey.
(c) According to some Rishonim, the minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah. Others hold that even the smallest amount of food can receive Tum'ah, but only a k'Beitzah can transfer Tum'ah to other foods.
(d) 1 Beitzah = approximately 0.05, 0.0576 or .1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
9) [last line] MIN HA'MUKAF - from food that is next to it (in the same utensil)
10) [line 1] SAVRUHA - the students of the Yeshiva thought (were of the opinion)
11) [line 2] ISAH RISHONAH - a dough that a Rishon l'Tum'ah
12) [line 2] CHULIN HA'TEVULIN L'CHALAH, LO K'CHALAH DAMU - a dough of Chulin from which there is an obligation to separate Chalah, does not have the status of Chalah regarding Tum'ah
13) [line 16] MAR SAVAR TECHUMIN D'ORAISA U'MAR SAVAR D'RABANAN
(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or place of Shevisah for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
(c) The Tana'im of our Mishnah argue as to whether Techumin are mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. The Halachah follows the opinion that they are mid'Rabanan (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 27:1)
14) [line 19] NASNU EINEIHEM - they saw it appropriate [to say the Shirah]
15a) [line 20] K'GADOL HA'MEKAREI ES HA'HALEL - like an adult (who is the Shali'ach Tzibur) who reads the Halel [to fulfill for the congregation their obligation of reciting the Halel. Each time the Shali'ach Tzibur recites a phrase, the congregation responds with the "Rashei Perakim" (the first few words of each chapter). Similarly, during the Shirah, each time Moshe Rabeinu recited a phrase, Benei Yisrael responded with the words "Ashirah la'Sh-m" (and possibly "Mi Chamocha" for the verses of "Mi Chamocha" (Shemos 15:11) onward -- MAHARSHA).]
b) [line 25] K'KATAN HA'MEKAREI ES HA'HALEL - like a minor who reads the Halel [for an adult. Since the adult does not fulfill his obligation through the recitation of a minor, he must repeat each phrase after the minor reads it. Similarly, during the Shirah, Benei Yisrael repeated each phrase after Moshe Rabeinu. (Although Benei Yisrael would have been able to fulfill their obligation of reciting the Halel through the recitation of Moshe Rabeinu and their response of Rashei Perakim, they desired to repeat each phrase in order to publicize the matter of their salvation by HaSh-m -- MAHARSHA)]
16) [line 29] SOFER - a Rebbi who teaches children
17) [line 29] HA'PORES AL SHEMA
(a) The Mishnah (Megilah 23b) states that we may not be "Porsin Al Shema" with less than ten people. RASHI (ibid.) says that the word "Pores" comes from the word "Pras," or "half." "Pores Al Shema" means that only half of the blessings of Keri'as Shema are said. According to Rashi, as the RAN (ibid.) explains, people who pray by themselves without a Minyan may not recite a Davar sheb'Kedushah. Thus, they do not say Kadish, Barchu, or the Kedushah in the first blessing of Keri'as Shema (the blessing of "Yotzer Or"). If ten such people who prayed by themselves then come together in the synagogue, they may appoint a Chazan to say Kadish, Barchu, and the first blessing of Keri'as Shema which has Kedushah in it. (They say that blessing in the form of a Nedavah, a free-will offering, since they already said the blessing (just without Kedushah) by themselves.)
(b) The Rishonim dispute whether, in order to be "Pores Al Shema," it is necessary to have ten people who all need to hear these Devarim sheb'Kedushah because they prayed by themselves. Some Rishonim maintain that it suffices if only some of them need to hear the Devarim sheb'Kedushah (while the others already heard them).
1. From the words of Rashi (Megilah ibid.), who says that "a Minyan of people who come to the synagogue..." are Pores Al Shema, it seems that he maintains that there must be ten people who all prayed by themselves and need to hear the Devarim sheb'Kedushah. The ME'IRI (ibid.) records such an opinion as well.
2. TOSFOS (ibid.), citing Maseches Sofrim, says that it suffices if only six or seven out of the ten have not yet heard Kadish, Barchu, and Kedushah.
3. RABEINU TAM, cited by Tosfos, says that it is enough to be Pores Al Shema if only five out of the ten need to hear the Devarim sheb'Kedushah.
4. The TALMIDEI RASHI, cited by Tosfos, say that a person may be Pores Al Shema even if he is the only person of the ten who has not yet heard Devarim sheb'Kedushah.
(c) Other Rishonim translate the word "Porsin" differently:
1. The RAMBAM (in Perush ha'Mishnayos) says that "Pores" means to spread out or to prepare. This also seems to be the interpretation of RASHI (here, DH k'Sofer).
2. The GE'ONIM, cited by the Ran (to Megilah ibid.), say that "Pores" means to begin, and it means that we do not begin to say Shema and its blessings with less than ten people. (But if we have already begun with ten, we may continue if some leave -- see also Rambam in Mishnah Torah).
3. The ME'IRI says (citing the MICHTAM) that it means to "bless" (that is, to recite the blessings of Keri'as Shema).
(d) According to all of these interpretations (c:1-3), the act of "Porsin Al Shema" refers to saying both blessings of Keri'as Shema, and not just the first one. In addition, it is not referring to people who prayed by themselves, but rather to people who do not know the blessings by heart and do not have Sidurim, and they want to be Yotzei by hearing one person recite them. The Rabanan decreed that since these blessings are like a Davar sheb'Kedushah, it will not suffice for one person to recite them for one other person, like one may do with other Berachos. Rather, they required that in order to be Yotzei by hearing another person recite these blessings, there must be a group of ten people present. (They compare this to the Halachah of a Zimun for Birkas ha'Mazon, whereby one person can only be Motzi another if there are at least three people present.)
(e) According to the Ge'onim, the reason why ten people are required in order to be Pores Al Shema is not the same as the reason why the other things mentioned in the Mishnah (see Megilah ibid.) require ten people. Those other things are genuine Devarim sheb'Kedushah, and a Davar sheb'Kedushah needs ten people to be recited in the first place. However, the blessings of Keri'as Shema may be recited by an individual, if he knows them by heart. They require ten people when it comes to having one person recite them for others because they are like a Davar sheb'Kedushah.
(f) Support for Rashi's explanation (in Megilah) can be found in our Gemara, the only other place in Shas where "Pores Al Shema" is mentioned. The Gemara here implies that everyone recites the words together with the Chazan, and not that they listen to him as he recites it for them. However, Tosfos DH Rebbi Nechemyah cites a Tosefta that indeed describes "Pores Al Shema" as the Chazan reciting the words for the others who are listening and being Yotzei with his recitation, and they do not repeat the words that the Chazan says.
18) [line 31] "LEIMOR", A'MILSA KAMAISA - the word "Leimor" ("to say") in the verse of Az Yashir (Shemos 15:1) is referring to the words immediately following it ("Ashirah la'Sh-m")
19) [line 38] OLEL - a baby who has stopped nursing; a two-year old (approximately)
20) [line 39] "MI'PI OLELIM V'YONKIM YISADTA OZ, L'MA'AN TZORERECHA, L'HASHBIS OYEV U'MISNAKEM." - "Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings You have established strength, because of Your tormentors, that You might silence the enemy and the avenger." (Tehilim 8:3)
Index to Background for Maseches Sotah