[8a - 64 lines; 8b - 48 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Ga'on printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, as well as Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 קלין חדתין ח. ד"ה עד כ"ט באלול
לאוקמי' כר"ש כדאמר ר"ש כו' שלא יסבור כרבי'
צ"ל לאוקמי' כדאמר ר"ש כו' שלא יסבור כרבים
 תקלין חדתין ח. ד"ה זאת אומרת
של שנה הבאה
צ"ל לשנה הבאה
 גמרא ח: [שורה 5]
מסתפק מן הראשונה כו' ומן השני' כו'
צ"ל אין מסתפק ... ולא מן השני' כו'
(כמו שנדפס בגליון - כן הוא גירסת הגר"א)
 תקלין חדתין ח: ד"ה אחדגרסתן
 הגהות הגר"א אות [א]
עד ר' אבין אמר טטרטין נמחק
צ"ל עד כמה שיעורן של כוס נמחק
1)[line 1]ראש השנה למעשר בהמה- is the beginning of the year (that is, the cut-off point after which animals born are considered to be of the following year's flock) for Ma'asar Behemah
2)[line 3]הָאֱלוּלִיִים- those [animals] born in Elul
3)[line 4]עד כאן הן מִתְמַּצוֹת לֵילֵד מן הישנות- until this point those animals which had conceived prior to Nisan [the beginning of the year] would still be giving birth (since the gestation period for sheep and goats is five months)
4)[line 7]"לָבְשׁוּ כָרִים הַצּאן וַעֲמָקִים יַעַטְפוּ בָר יִתְרוֹעֲעוּ אַף יָשִׁירוּ"- "The meadows don sheep and the valleys cloak themselves with fodder; they shout joyfully, and even sing!" (Tehilim 65:14) - Our Gemara homiletically interprets this verse to mean, "The stronger sheep conceive immediately, while the weaker ones conceive only when the valleys cloak themselves with fodder (i.e., during the month of Nisan). Even the poorer ones (from the word "רע") are tithed (from the word "מעשר") [together with the earlier ones]."
5a)[line 7]הַבְּכִירוֹת- those animals that conceive first (in Adar)
b)[line 8]הָאַפִילוֹת- those animals that conceive belatedly (in Nisan)
6)[line 13]וחמישי באב- and the fifth of [the following month of] Av
7)[line 13]מַכְרִיעַ על דברי תלמידיו אתא?- is he coming to suggest a compromise between the opinions advanced by his students? [He is a greater authority than they are; let him decide the final Halachah!]
8)[line 18]אִית בַּר נַש אמר לְרַבֵּיה- is there a person who would [so disrespectfully] say to his Rebbi
9a)[line 21]על החלוקין אנו מצטערין- we are dismayed over the difference of opinion [between Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai in the previous Mishnah]
b)[line 22]בָּאת לחלוק עלינו את השוין?- you have come to assert that they disagree in this case [as well, about which your colleagues maintain] that they agree?
10)[line 28]גורן- one of the three annual dates fixed by the Chachamim for Ma'asar Behemah; see Background to 7:68:c
11a)[line 30]כְּחַנַט- like [fruits which grow on trees, which for Ma'aser purposes (see Background to Pesachim 66:15) are considered to have grown in the year in which they] budded. The equivalent of this in an animal of Ma'asar Behemah would be the time of conception.
b)[line 30]כְּשְלִיש- like [grain and olive trees, which for Ma'aser purposes (see Background to Pesachim 66:15) are considered to have grown in the year in which they have reached] a third of their growth [which is when they are edible]. The equivalent of this in an animal of Ma'asar Behemah would be the time at which it would be permissible to offer it as a Shelamim; namely, eight days following its birth (see next entry).
12)[line 35]מחוסר זמן(MECHUSAR ZEMAN)
(a)One may not offer an animal as a sacrifice before it is eight days old. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Shor O Chesev O Ez Ki Yivaled, v'Hayah Shiv'as Yamim Tachas Imo; umi'Yom ha'Shemini va'Hal'ah Yeratzeh l'Korban Isheh la'HaSh-m" - "When a bull, sheep or goat is born, it shall remain with its mother for seven days; from the eighth day and onward it shall be acceptable as a fire offering for G-d" (Vayikra 22:27).
(b)An animal younger than eight days old is termed "Mechusar Zeman" - "lacking time," since time must pass before it is acceptable as a Korban.
13)[line 35]דיר- a corral
14)[line 36]את אמרת (חדא) [הדא] מילתא?- do you say such a thing?
15)[line 38]לא אפילו...- does it not refer even to...
16a)[line 40]מניחן לשנה הבאה- do not take Ma'aser from them until the following year
b)[line 40]והן מתעשרין עם בני שנתן- however, they are considered part of the flock born in the previous year
17)[line 44]בכור(BECHOR BEHEMAH)
(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for he who owns the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to 6:38) during its first year. Our Gemara proves that the first eight days of its life count toward this year, even though it is ineligible to be offered then as a Korban.
(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.
(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).
18)[line 48]קופות של שלש שלש סאין- boxes, each of which hold three Se'in
19)[line 49]תורמין את הלישכה- see Background to 2:11
20)[line 51]יְוָנִית- Greek
21)[line 52]פַּרגוֹד חָפוּת- a cloak with an outer hem
22)[line 53]קְמֵיעַ- an amulet
23)[line 53]שֱמָא יֵעָנִי- for perhaps he will become poor
24)[line 54]מֵעָוֹן הלשכה- due to the sin of [stealing from] the room containing the Shekalim
25)[line 55]לצאת ידי הבריות- to concern himself with what others think of him
26)[line 56]המקום- (lit. the Place); HaSh-m
27a)[line 59]מְפַנִין- one may clear away
b)[line 59]קופות- boxes [of grain or fodder on Shabbos - even though they are Muktzah - if one needs to make room for guests at a meal or students at a Derashah]
28a)[line 1]סתום- that which is not stated explicitly
b)[line 1]מפורש- that which is stated explicitly
29)[line 5][אין] מִסְתַּפֵּק- [all] that is required should not be removed
30)[line 6]המוציא יין(MELACHOS OF SHABBOS: HOTZA'AH)
(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos (see Background to Shekalim 13:50). It involves either (a) transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim, (b) Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, (c) Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, (d) Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah [Shabbos 96a]; see Background to Shabbos 4a). These prohibitions are biblical in nature.
(b)In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (placing of the object to rest) must be performed on the object by one person. If one person does the Akirah and another the Hanachah, only a Rabbinical prohibition is involved (Shabbos 3a).
(c)Our Gemara quotes the first Mishnah in the eighth Perek of Shabbos (76b), which discusses the minimum amount of wine one must transfer from one type of Reshus to the other in order to transgress the Biblical prohibition against Hotza'ah.
31)[line 7]כדי מזיגת הכוס- enough to result in one cup of wine following a proper dilution. The wine in the times of the Gemara was all but undrinkable before it was diluted at a ratio of one part wine to three parts water.
32a)[line 9]ארבע כוסות- the four cups [that one must drink on Seder night]
b)[line 9]ישנן רביעית- have a [total of one] Revi'is [of a Log between them]. From this it is clear that each individual cup begins with a quarter of a Revi'is of wine, and ends up as a full Revi'is following dilution.
33)[line 10]יין (באיטלקי) [האיטלקי]- Italian wine (which is stronger than regular wine)
34)[line 11]מים- [the minimum amount of] water [one must transfer from one type of Reshus to the other in order to transgress the Biblical prohibition against Hotza'ah is]
35)[line 12]גְמִיעַ- one swallow's worth
36a)[line 12]לָשוּף- to dilute and soften
b)[line 12]הַקִילוֹר- a salve
37)[line 14]מזוג בכמה?- (a) How much diluted wine [must one transfer from one type of Reshus to the other in order to transgress the Biblical prohibition against Hotza'ah]? (Korban ha'Edah); (b) how much diluted wine [must one drink in order to fulfill his obligation to drink four cups on Seder night]? (Tiklin Chadtin, who is not Gores these words until a later point in the Gemara; see Hagahos ha'Gra [א] and [ג], and Girsa section #5)
38)[line 15]נִשְמַעִינָה מן הַדָא- let us derive it from the following
39)[line 18]כדי מזיגת הכוס- (a) one full Revi'is (Tiklin Chadtin; Korban ha'Edah in Shabbos); (b) three-quarters of a Revi'is, which is the equivalent of a Gemiya (Korban ha'Edah)
40)[line 19]כמה שיעורן של כוס?- [now that we have established that one cup holds a Revi'is,] how large is a Revi'is?
41a)[line 19]טִיטַרטוֹן- a liquid measure common in the times of the Gemara, which held approximately one quarter of a pint
b)[line 19]טִיטַרטוֹן ורביע- (a) one Titarton plus an additional quarter of a Titarton (i.e., 125% of a Titarton; Korban ha'Edah); (b) a Titarton which is a Revi'is (Tiklin Chadtin)
42)[line 20]בְּכְּרַך אחד- [one cup after another] at one time
43a)[line 21]הלל- [the recitation of] Halel [on Seder night]
b)[line 22]יצא- he has fulfilled hi obligation [and need not repeat it at the Seder, even though that is all that stands between the drinking of the third and fourth cups]
44)[line 23]בְּפִּיסְקָן- with interruptions [in the middle of drinking]
45)[line 2]לא (כדי שישתה ולא) שישתכר- not in order that he become drunk
46)[line 25]יין של שביעית(SHEVI'IS)
(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be eaten only in the normal manner of eating each type of fruit.
(b)The Shemitah year inculcates the Jewish people with the knowledge that we have only HaSh-m to rely upon for our sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to us during the six years in which we work our own fields.
(c)Shemitah produce may be stored only so long as that produce is available in the fields to wild animals (derived from Vayikra 25:7). When it is no longer available in the wild, Bi'ur must be done. This includes removing all of the produce from storage, placing it in a public domain and declaring it Hefker (Halachically ownerless) in front of three Jewish men. These men may be friends of the owner, who will allow him to reclaim his produce from Hefker immediately following his declaration without attempting to claim the produce for themselves (see Insights to Pesachim 52b).
(d)Our Gemara asks whether or not one may fulfill his obligation to drink four cups of wine on Seder night with wine made from grapes that grew during Shemitah. See Insights for the different ways in which the various commentaries understand why the Gemara entertains the possibility that this is problematic.
47)[line 26]קוֹנְדִיטוֹן- a wine-based drink containing honey, pepper, and other spices
48)[line 29]חַיִין- undiluted
49a)[line 30]טעם- the taste of wine, as opposed to that which is (a) overly concentrated (Tiklin Chadtin); (b) too new (RASHI to Pesachim 108b)
b)[line 30]מראה- the appearance of wine, as opposed to that which is (a) overly diluted (Tiklin Chadtin); (b) too old (RASHI to Pesachim 108b)
50)[line 31]"אַל תֵּרֶא יין כִּי יִתְאַדָּם, כִּי יִתֵּן בַּכּוֹס עֵינוֹ, [יִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּמֵישָרִים]"- "Do not look upon wine when it is red, for when a person eyes a cup, [he acts with propriety]." (Mishlei 23:31) - In this verse, King Shlomo warns one not to allow himself to be enticed by wine, for when one is intoxicated he feels that he can do no wrong. Rebbi Yirmeyah infers from this verse that ideally, wine must have a red appearance.
51)[line 32]כְּמְתּוּבָל- is like spiced [wine]; i.e., Konditon
52)[line 34]רבי יונה לטעמיה- [the ruling of] Rebbi Yonah [who allows the use of cooked and spiced wine, even though they are not as strong as regular wine] conforms to his own condition
53a)[line 35]הַוָה חָזִיק רֵישָא- his head would ache
b)[line 35]עד חַגָא- (a) until Sukos (Tiklin Chadtin); (b) until Shavu'os (Korban ha'Edah)
54a)[line 35]חַמִיתֵּיה חַדָא מַטְרוֹנִיתָא- a certain Roman matron (aristocratic woman) saw him
b)[line 36]אַפּוּי נְהִירִין- that his face was shining
55)[line 36]חדא מהני תלת מילין- one of the following three things
56a)[line 37]שָתוּי חַמְרָי את- you are drunk (and therefore happy)
b)[line 38]מלוי בריבית את- you lend with interest (and are therefore happy due to the profit you are making)
c)[line 38]מגדל חזירי את- you raise pigs (which is an especially profitable enterprise, and are therefore happy)
57)[line 38]תֵּיפַּח רוּחָא- let the soul be blown out
58)[line 40]אוּלְפָּנִי שכיח לי- (a) I have much Torah knowledge; (b) I am accustomed to coming up with original Torah thoughts (Korban ha'Edah)
59)[line 41]אָתִי- came
60)[line 41]חַמוּנֵיה- they saw him
61)[line 43]סימא- a treasure
62)[line 43]מַאי אוֹרַייתָא חַדְתָּא שַמְעַתְּ- what new Torah knowledge did you gain?
63)[line 44]עַתִּיקָא- ancient (and not commonly known)
64)[line 46]תַּמְוּנָתָא עַתִּיקָא דְמוּרְיִיסָא דציפורי- the old Tamnaisa (a measure which held 1/8 of a Kav, or approximately one pint) of Tzipori, which was used to measure Muryis (a brine containing fish-hash and sometimes wine)
65)[line 47]חַכַּמְנָא לה- I remember it
66)[last line]מְכִילִין בה- measure with it
67)[last line]חצי שמינית טַבְרָנִית הישנה- one sixteenth of the old measure used in Teveryah [is equal to a Revi'is]