[8a - 64 lines; 8b - 48 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Ga'on printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, as well as Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

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1)[line 1] - is the beginning of the year (that is, the cut-off point after which animals born are considered to be of the following year's flock) for Ma'asar Behemah

2)[line 3]- those [animals] born in Elul

3)[line 4] - until this point those animals which had conceived prior to Nisan [the beginning of the year] would still be giving birth (since the gestation period for sheep and goats is five months)

4)[line 7]" "- "The meadows don sheep and the valleys cloak themselves with fodder; they shout joyfully, and even sing!" (Tehilim 65:14) - Our Gemara homiletically interprets this verse to mean, "The stronger sheep conceive immediately, while the weaker ones conceive only when the valleys cloak themselves with fodder (i.e., during the month of Nisan). Even the poorer ones (from the word "") are tithed (from the word "") [together with the earlier ones]."

5a)[line 7]- those animals that conceive first (in Adar)

b)[line 8]- those animals that conceive belatedly (in Nisan)

6)[line 13] - and the fifth of [the following month of] Av

7)[line 13] ?- is he coming to suggest a compromise between the opinions advanced by his students? [He is a greater authority than they are; let him decide the final Halachah!]

8)[line 18] - is there a person who would [so disrespectfully] say to his Rebbi

9a)[line 21] - we are dismayed over the difference of opinion [between Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai in the previous Mishnah]

b)[line 22] ?- you have come to assert that they disagree in this case [as well, about which your colleagues maintain] that they agree?

10)[line 28]- one of the three annual dates fixed by the Chachamim for Ma'asar Behemah; see Background to 7:68:c

11a)[line 30]- like [fruits which grow on trees, which for Ma'aser purposes (see Background to Pesachim 66:15) are considered to have grown in the year in which they] budded. The equivalent of this in an animal of Ma'asar Behemah would be the time of conception.

b)[line 30]- like [grain and olive trees, which for Ma'aser purposes (see Background to Pesachim 66:15) are considered to have grown in the year in which they have reached] a third of their growth [which is when they are edible]. The equivalent of this in an animal of Ma'asar Behemah would be the time at which it would be permissible to offer it as a Shelamim; namely, eight days following its birth (see next entry).

12)[line 35] (MECHUSAR ZEMAN)

(a)One may not offer an animal as a sacrifice before it is eight days old. This is stated clearly in the Torah: "Shor O Chesev O Ez Ki Yivaled, v'Hayah Shiv'as Yamim Tachas Imo; umi'Yom ha'Shemini va'Hal'ah Yeratzeh l'Korban Isheh la'HaSh-m" - "When a bull, sheep or goat is born, it shall remain with its mother for seven days; from the eighth day and onward it shall be acceptable as a fire offering for G-d" (Vayikra 22:27).

(b)An animal younger than eight days old is termed "Mechusar Zeman" - "lacking time," since time must pass before it is acceptable as a Korban.

13)[line 35]- a corral

14)[line 36] () [] ?- do you say such a thing?

15)[line 38] ...- does it not refer even to...

16a)[line 40] - do not take Ma'aser from them until the following year

b)[line 40] - however, they are considered part of the flock born in the previous year

17)[line 44](BECHOR BEHEMAH)

(a)Every first-born male offspring of an ox, goat or sheep is Kadosh when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for he who owns the animal to sanctify it by verbally declaring it to have the Kedushah of a Bechor, similar to the way in which one is Makdish a Korban (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.

(b)If the animal is unblemished, the Kohen must bring it as a Korban Shelamim (see Background to 6:38) during its first year. Our Gemara proves that the first eight days of its life count toward this year, even though it is ineligible to be offered then as a Korban.

(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen and it is slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen may give it away or sell it - even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner, nor may it be redeemed with money.

(d)When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

18)[line 48] - boxes, each of which hold three Se'in

19)[line 49] - see Background to 2:11

20)[line 51]- Greek

21)[line 52] - a cloak with an outer hem

22)[line 53]- an amulet

23)[line 53] - for perhaps he will become poor

24)[line 54] - due to the sin of [stealing from] the room containing the Shekalim

25)[line 55] - to concern himself with what others think of him

26)[line 56]- (lit. the Place); HaSh-m

27a)[line 59]- one may clear away

b)[line 59]- boxes [of grain or fodder on Shabbos - even though they are Muktzah - if one needs to make room for guests at a meal or students at a Derashah]

8b----------------------------------------8b

28a)[line 1]- that which is not stated explicitly

b)[line 1]- that which is stated explicitly

29)[line 5][] - [all] that is required should not be removed

30)[line 6] (MELACHOS OF SHABBOS: HOTZA'AH)

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos (see Background to Shekalim 13:50). It involves either (a) transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim, (b) Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, (c) Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, (d) Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah [Shabbos 96a]; see Background to Shabbos 4a). These prohibitions are biblical in nature.

(b)In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (placing of the object to rest) must be performed on the object by one person. If one person does the Akirah and another the Hanachah, only a Rabbinical prohibition is involved (Shabbos 3a).

(c)Our Gemara quotes the first Mishnah in the eighth Perek of Shabbos (76b), which discusses the minimum amount of wine one must transfer from one type of Reshus to the other in order to transgress the Biblical prohibition against Hotza'ah.

31)[line 7] - enough to result in one cup of wine following a proper dilution. The wine in the times of the Gemara was all but undrinkable before it was diluted at a ratio of one part wine to three parts water.

32a)[line 9] - the four cups [that one must drink on Seder night]

b)[line 9] - have a [total of one] Revi'is [of a Log between them]. From this it is clear that each individual cup begins with a quarter of a Revi'is of wine, and ends up as a full Revi'is following dilution.

33)[line 10] () []- Italian wine (which is stronger than regular wine)

34)[line 11]- [the minimum amount of] water [one must transfer from one type of Reshus to the other in order to transgress the Biblical prohibition against Hotza'ah is]

35)[line 12]- one swallow's worth

36a)[line 12]- to dilute and soften

b)[line 12]- a salve

37)[line 14] ?- (a) How much diluted wine [must one transfer from one type of Reshus to the other in order to transgress the Biblical prohibition against Hotza'ah]? (Korban ha'Edah); (b) how much diluted wine [must one drink in order to fulfill his obligation to drink four cups on Seder night]? (Tiklin Chadtin, who is not Gores these words until a later point in the Gemara; see Hagahos ha'Gra [] and [], and Girsa section #5)

38)[line 15] - let us derive it from the following

39)[line 18] - (a) one full Revi'is (Tiklin Chadtin; Korban ha'Edah in Shabbos); (b) three-quarters of a Revi'is, which is the equivalent of a Gemiya (Korban ha'Edah)

40)[line 19] ?- [now that we have established that one cup holds a Revi'is,] how large is a Revi'is?

41a)[line 19]- a liquid measure common in the times of the Gemara, which held approximately one quarter of a pint

b)[line 19] - (a) one Titarton plus an additional quarter of a Titarton (i.e., 125% of a Titarton; Korban ha'Edah); (b) a Titarton which is a Revi'is (Tiklin Chadtin)

42)[line 20] - [one cup after another] at one time

43a)[line 21]- [the recitation of] Halel [on Seder night]

b)[line 22]- he has fulfilled hi obligation [and need not repeat it at the Seder, even though that is all that stands between the drinking of the third and fourth cups]

44)[line 23]- with interruptions [in the middle of drinking]

45)[line 2] ( ) - not in order that he become drunk

46)[line 25] (SHEVI'IS)

(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be eaten only in the normal manner of eating each type of fruit.

(b)The Shemitah year inculcates the Jewish people with the knowledge that we have only HaSh-m to rely upon for our sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to us during the six years in which we work our own fields.

(c)Shemitah produce may be stored only so long as that produce is available in the fields to wild animals (derived from Vayikra 25:7). When it is no longer available in the wild, Bi'ur must be done. This includes removing all of the produce from storage, placing it in a public domain and declaring it Hefker (Halachically ownerless) in front of three Jewish men. These men may be friends of the owner, who will allow him to reclaim his produce from Hefker immediately following his declaration without attempting to claim the produce for themselves (see Insights to Pesachim 52b).

(d)Our Gemara asks whether or not one may fulfill his obligation to drink four cups of wine on Seder night with wine made from grapes that grew during Shemitah. See Insights for the different ways in which the various commentaries understand why the Gemara entertains the possibility that this is problematic.

47)[line 26]- a wine-based drink containing honey, pepper, and other spices

48)[line 29]- undiluted

49a)[line 30]- the taste of wine, as opposed to that which is (a) overly concentrated (Tiklin Chadtin); (b) too new (RASHI to Pesachim 108b)

b)[line 30]- the appearance of wine, as opposed to that which is (a) overly diluted (Tiklin Chadtin); (b) too old (RASHI to Pesachim 108b)

50)[line 31]" , , [ ]"- "Do not look upon wine when it is red, for when a person eyes a cup, [he acts with propriety]." (Mishlei 23:31) - In this verse, King Shlomo warns one not to allow himself to be enticed by wine, for when one is intoxicated he feels that he can do no wrong. Rebbi Yirmeyah infers from this verse that ideally, wine must have a red appearance.

51)[line 32]- is like spiced [wine]; i.e., Konditon

52)[line 34] - [the ruling of] Rebbi Yonah [who allows the use of cooked and spiced wine, even though they are not as strong as regular wine] conforms to his own condition

53a)[line 35] - his head would ache

b)[line 35] - (a) until Sukos (Tiklin Chadtin); (b) until Shavu'os (Korban ha'Edah)

54a)[line 35] - a certain Roman matron (aristocratic woman) saw him

b)[line 36] - that his face was shining

55)[line 36] - one of the following three things

56a)[line 37] - you are drunk (and therefore happy)

b)[line 38] - you lend with interest (and are therefore happy due to the profit you are making)

c)[line 38] - you raise pigs (which is an especially profitable enterprise, and are therefore happy)

57)[line 38] - let the soul be blown out

58)[line 40] - (a) I have much Torah knowledge; (b) I am accustomed to coming up with original Torah thoughts (Korban ha'Edah)

59)[line 41]- came

60)[line 41]- they saw him

61)[line 43]- a treasure

62)[line 43] - what new Torah knowledge did you gain?

63)[line 44]- ancient (and not commonly known)

64)[line 46] - the old Tamnaisa (a measure which held 1/8 of a Kav, or approximately one pint) of Tzipori, which was used to measure Muryis (a brine containing fish-hash and sometimes wine)

65)[line 47] - I remember it

66)[last line] - measure with it

67)[last line] - one sixteenth of the old measure used in Teveryah [is equal to a Revi'is]

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