ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler of Kollel Iyun Hadaf
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
(a) When Rava asked Rav Huna 'Heicha T'nan', he meant to ask him whether Rebbi Meir in our Mishnah learns 'ha'Kite'a Yotze, and Rebbi Yossi, Oser', or vice-versa.
(b) Shmuel and Rav Huna both change the text of our Mishnah to 'Ein ha'Kite'a Yotze' in Rebbi Meir, and 'Matir' in Rebbi Yossi. We reject this version however - because Rav indicated that the correct version is the one that we have (that Rebbi Meir permits it, and Rebbi Yossi forbids). 'Samech, Samech' is a reminder that Rebbi Yossi is the one who says Asur.
(c) The Mishnah in Yevamos rules that if a Yevamah removes a shoe that does not belong to the Yavam from the Yavam's foot, or a wooden 'Sandal', or a left shoe from his right foot - the Chalitzah is nevertheless Kasher.
(d) Shmuel establishes the author of this Beraisa (which permits Chalitzah using a wooden shoe Bedieved) as Rebbi Meir - proving that he retracted from his original contention that Rebbi Meir forbids the Kite'a to go out with his wooden stump, because a wooden shoe is not called a shoe.
(a) A Sandal shel Sayadin is a shoe - made of wood, because the lime would burn the leather of ordinary shoes.
(b) Rebbi Akiva rules that it is Tamei Medras, Kasher for Chalitzah and one may wear it in the street on Shabbos. Rav Huna explains that it is Rebbi Meir (of our Mishnah, who considers a wooden shoe to be a shoe) who agrees with Rebbi Akiva, and Rebbi Yossi (who does not) who disagrees.
(c) This statement of Rav Huna - corroborates Shmuel's opinion after he retracted, that it is Rebbi Meir who considers a wooden shoe to be a shoe, and Rebbi Yossi who does not.
(d) Rav Yosef disagrees with Rav Huna. According to him - the sandal of lime-sellers is made, not out of wood, but out of straw, and the Tana who disagrees with Rebbi Akiva, is Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri, who says that a straw mat or tube is not Tamei, because straw does not have the Din of wood (nor is it mentioned independently as a substance that is subject to Tum'ah); whereas Rebbi Akiva follows his own opinion there in his Machlokes with Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri - that straw has the Din of wood.
(a) Even though the main objective of the lime-sellers' shoes was to protect their own shoes, as Tosfos explains - they nevertheless tended to wear them on their way home (during which time it must have been used exclusively for that purpose [otherwise we would say 'Amod ve'Na'aseh Melachteinu', and the shoe would still not be Metamei Medras]).
(a) Abaye says that the wooden leg of a man with a missing lower-leg is Tamei Meis, but not Tamei Medras, despite the fact that he hollowed it to receive soft cloths (to take the weight of the stump of his leg). It is not Metamei Medras - because it is not really designated for leaning on, but rather as a Tachshit. By Tamei Meis - Abaye incorporates all Tum'os other than Tum'as Medras (because we tend to use Tum'as Mes when contrasting with Tum'as Medras, since they both make an Av ha'Tum'ah (as opposed to other types of Tum'ah, which only make a Ri'shon).
(b) According to Rava - the hollowed stump is even Metamei Medras, since sometimes, he uses it to lean his weight on.
1. ... Abaye refutes Rava's proof from a baby-wagon - which he claims, is different, because sometimes the baby leans on it, whereas the man with a leg missing, in his opinion, does not.
2. ... Rava refutes Abaye's proof from an old man's stick, which is Tahor - because, he says, it is not made to lean on at all, but to help him to walk straight, which is why it is not subject to Tum'ah at all.
(a) When the Beraisa expert quoted a Beraisa that a man without legs is permitted to enter the Azarah with his 'Kisei and Semuchos', Rebbi Yochanan remarked - that in his opinion, a Yavamah is permitted to make Chalitzah by removing the Semuchos (in which case, they are considered, with which one is forbidden to enter the Azarah).
(b) So he instructed him to amend the Beraisa to read 'Ein Nichnasin Bahen la'Azarah'.
(c) 'Luktamin' is not subject to Tum'ah. 'Luktamin' can either mean a sort of a fun-horse which one appears to be riding, but which one is actually carrying oneself (which is not subject to Tum'ah because it is not K'li); or short or long stilts (see also Tosfos) (which are not subject to Tum'ah because they are a flat wooden vessel which cannot become Tamei - see also Tosfos). The third interpretation of 'Luktamin' is - a (Purim) mask which is not subjsct to Tum'ah because it is not a K'li.
(a) Kishurei Pu'ah, known as a madder, is a series of knots which they would tie, and hang around the boys' neck.
(b) Abaye's nanny told him - that three knots ill keep the illness in check, five will cure it, whereas seven will even act as an antidote against witchcraft.
(c) This cure will only work if the boy sees neither the sun, nor the moon, nor rain. Nor should he hear - the sound of metal, of a hen or of footsteps.
(d) 'Nafal Pusa be'Bira' means - that, if so, the cure is useless (because it is too restrictive). Nor is it clear why this cure should be exclusive to boys and why is it restricted to young boys Why should it not apply to girls, and why not to men?
(a) We finally describe Kishurim as - the cure for a young boy who is possessed with a powerful longing for his father, on account of which he is unable to leave him. The antidote is to take the shoe-lace from a right shoe, and to tie it on his left shoe. To do the reverse is dangerous, and the sign for this is Tefilin, where one ties the Tefilin on the left arm with one's right hand.
(a) 'And princes may go out with a bell'. This applies to princes - as well as to anybody else. The Mishnah mentions princes only because they were usually the ones to do this.
(b) One is permitted on Shabbos to ...
1. ... do 'Sechufi Kasi a'Tiburi' on Shabbos. This means - to take a hot cup which has been emptied, but which still contains steam, and to place it upside-down over the navel of someone with stomach pains. Then one draws the cup towards oneself and returns it.
2. ... anoint the palms of someone's hands and the soles of his feet with oil or salt on Shabbos.
(c) One would perform the latter with someone who was inebriated, whilst saying 'just as this oil (or salt) is evaporating (from the heat of the man's skin), so too, let the wine of so-and so, the son of so-and-so (mentioning his mother specifically) evaporate, too. Alternatively - one would bring the lid of a barrel, place it in water and say 'just as the lid is evaporating, so too, let the wine of so-and-so evaporate.
(a) Rav Avin bar Huna quoting Rav Chamah bar Guri'ah (the author of the current series of statements), also made a further two statements. When he said ...
1. ... 'Mutar Leichanek be'Shabbos' - he meant that one may take someone someone who swallowed his own small neck-bone which broke, to hold him upside down so that his neck will stretch, releasing the bone (The name is based on the fact that when one stretches the person's neck, it resembles strangling).
2. ... 'Lifufi Yenuka be'Shabbos, Shapir Dami', he meant that one is permitted to to swathe a new-born baby in cloths, and then to tie him with a wide belt - to ensure that any limbs that became dislocated during birth move back into place.
(b) When Abaye's nanny told him ...
1. ... 'Kol Minyani, bi'Sh'mah de'Eima, ve'Chol Kitri, bi'S'mala', she meant - that every spell (which was usually repeated a number of times), one would pray using the mother's name (as we saw above); and every knot, is tied on the left side
2. ... 'Kol Minyani, di'Mefarshi ke'de'Mefarshi, u'de'Lo Mefarshi, Arba'in ve'Chad Zimni', she meant - that whenever a spell is prescribed with a number, one should be careful to repeat it according to the number of times specified. Where no number is prescribed, then one should repeat it forty-one times.
(a) A woman is permitted to go out with an 'Even Tekumah' on Shabbos to prevent a miscarriage. Rebbi Meir - permits the balancing-weight of the Even Tekumah, as well.
(b) This concession applies - even if the woman has not suffered a previous miscarriage, and even if she does not know that she is actually pregnant.
(c) It is confined however, to where the weight is intrinsically accurate - but not, where one needs to add to it to make up the missing weight, or to subtract from it to bring it down to the prescribed weight.
(d) We ask whether Rebbi Meir also permits a Mishkal de'Mishkal (the weight that balances the weight) - but the Sha'aleh remains unanswered.
(a) The man with the fever takes the coin down to the canals leading from the Sea to the pools - from which he takes the equivalent weight of salt and ties it to the neck opening of a garment with a loop of hair.
(b) Alternatively, he waits by the crossroads, until he finds a large ant carrying something, which he takes the ant and places it in a copper pipe - which he stops up with lead and seals a number of times (with wax, tar, cement ... ). He then carries the pipe and says - to the ant ...
(c) We reject the initial suggestion that one says to the ant 'You carry my load and I will carry yours', because it is possible that someone already used this very same ant for the same cure, with the result that he will end up by receiving the other person's illness.
(d) Therefore what he says to the ant is - 'You carry my load as well as your own.
(a) Alternatively, he can take a new earthenware water jar down to the river - and say 'River, River, lend me a jar of water for my current journey'. Then - he fills his jar and, after passing it round his head seven times, he throws the water over his shoulder, and says 'River River, take back the water that you gave me; because the journey that came in a day, went in a day'.